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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Zhifeng Liu ◽  
Yi Jiao ◽  
Tianyuan Yu ◽  
Hourong Wang ◽  
Yingqi Zhang ◽  

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a high prevalence and canceration rate. The immune disorder is one of the recognized mechanisms. Acupuncture is widely used to treat patients with IBD. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have proven the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of IBD, and some progress has been made in the mechanism. In this paper, we reviewed the studies related to acupuncture for IBD and focused on the immunomodulatory mechanism. We found that acupuncture could regulate the innate and adaptive immunity of IBD patients in many ways. Acupuncture exerts innate immunomodulatory effects by regulating intestinal epithelial barrier, toll-like receptors, NLRP3 inflammasomes, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and exerts adaptive immunomodulation by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg and Th1/Th2 cells. In addition, acupuncture can also regulate intestinal flora.

Magdalena Potempa-Jeziorowska ◽  
Paweł Jonczyk ◽  
Elżbieta Świętochowska ◽  
Marek Kucharzewski

A high prevalence of obesity among children is influenced by serious implications. Obesity mainly results from behavioral factors, such as improper dietary habits. This study aims to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary habits of children aged 6–10 (n = 908) attending primary schools in Poland, Europe. The research tool was a questionnaire that was completed by one of the children’s parents. A statistical analysis was made using statistical software. The value of p = 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 74.7% of children surveyed have a normal body mass. As many as 91.7% and 76.6% of children, respectively, eat a first and second breakfast daily. Nearly half of parents (48.9%) state that their child consumes milk or other dairy products daily. A total of 74.3% of children drink water daily. A total of 27.6% eats fish less frequently than once a week. A total of 7.6% of children eat fish several times a week. As many as 20.6% of the respondents state that their child eats brown bread several times a week, whereas 19.9% state that their child never eats brown bread. A total of 55.1% of children eat fruits and/or vegetables daily. A total of 14.1% of children surveyed consume sweets daily. The study revealed a positive correlation between BMI and the frequency of mineral water consumption (p = 0.013) in 9 y.o. girls. It was also revealed that the number of consumed fruit/vegetables increases with the BMI value among 10 y.o. boys (p = 0.044). Conclusions: The dietary habits of the investigated children are still improper. There is a great need for education on this issue, but family involvement is also required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuangshuang Li ◽  
Guanhua Xu ◽  
Junyu Liang ◽  
Liyan Wan ◽  
Heng Cao ◽  

Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis where urate crystals deposit in joints and surrounding tissues. With the high prevalence of gout, the standardized and effective treatment of gout is very important, but the long-term treatment effect of gout is not satisfied because of the poor adherence in patients to the medicines. Recently, advanced imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), attracted more and more attention for their role on gout as intuitive and non-invasive tools for early gout diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effect. This review summarized the role of US, DECT, and MRI in the management of gout from four perspectives: hyperuricemia, gout attacks, chronic gout, and gout complications described the scoring systems currently used to quantify disease severity and discussed the challenges and limitations of using these imaging tools to assess response to the gout treatment.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Adrián Vicente-Barrueco ◽  
Ángel Carlos Román ◽  
Trinidad Ruiz-Téllez ◽  
Francisco Centeno

Yearly, 1,500,000 cases of leishmaniasis are diagnosed, causing thousands of deaths. To advance in its therapy, we present an interdisciplinary protocol that unifies ethnobotanical knowledge of natural compounds and the latest bioinformatics advances to respond to an orphan disease such as leishmaniasis and specifically the one caused by Leishmania amazonensis. The use of ethnobotanical information serves as a basis for the development of new drugs, a field in which computer-aided drug design (CADD) has been a revolution. Taking this information from Amazonian communities, located in the area with a high prevalence of this disease, a protocol has been designed to verify new leads. Moreover, a method has been developed that allows the evaluation of lead molecules, and the improvement of their affinity and specificity against therapeutic targets. Through this approach, deguelin has been identified as a good lead to treat the infection due to its potential as an ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor, a key enzyme in Leishmania development. Using an in silico-generated combinatorial library followed by docking approaches, we have found deguelin derivatives with better affinity and specificity against ODC than the original compound, suggesting that this approach could be adapted for developing new drugs against leishmaniasis.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262308
Woyinshet Worku ◽  
Moges Desta ◽  
Tadesse Menjetta

Background Food-borne diseases related to the consumption of meat and its products had public health importance worldwide. The problem became worst in Ethiopia as the result of the tradition of eating raw cattle meat. Salmonella species and Escherichia coli are important food-borne pathogens associated with meat contamination. Hence the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella species and Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli from raw cattle meat at butcher houses in Hawassa city, Sidama regional state, Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional study was done on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species and Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E.coli from raw cattle meat at butcher houses in Hawassa city from September to December 2020. Socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire and raw cattle meat and swab samples were collected from meat cutting equipment. The collected samples transported using icebox to Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences Microbiology Laboratory for identification. Samples were grown on different culture media and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined by using Kirby disc diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed into SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics were done and P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result The overall prevalence of salmonella and ESBL producing E.coli among 556 samples collected from 278 butcher houses was 36 (6.47%) (95% CI: 1.68–1.79) of which 13 (2.3%) were ESBL producing E.coli and 23(4.1%) were salmonella species. Poor hand washing practice (AOR = 2.208; 95% CI: 1.249–3.904) and touching birr while selling meat (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: (0.433–1.299) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of salmonella species and E.coli on cattle meat. The isolates showed moderate levels of resistance (60–70%) against Amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid and high susceptibility (85–100%) against gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ceftazidime, and tetracycline and the overall multidrug resistance was 33.3%. Conclusion This study revealed moderately high prevalence of salmonella and E.coli due to poor hygiene and sanitation practices in the butcher shops. Furthermore, the existence of ESBL producing E.coli isolates clearly indicate the possible threat to public health. Therefore, inspection by the right agencies must be implemented in order to prevent food-borne outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Leonard Ngarka ◽  
Joseph Nelson Siewe Fodjo ◽  
Esraa Aly ◽  
Willias Masocha ◽  
Alfred K. Njamnshi

Neurological disorders related to neuroinfections are highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a major cause of disability and economic burden for patients and society. These include epilepsy, dementia, motor neuron diseases, headache disorders, sleep disorders, and peripheral neuropathy. The highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is in SSA. Consequently, there is a high prevalence of neurological disorders associated with HIV infection such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, motor disorders, chronic headaches, and peripheral neuropathy in the region. The pathogenesis of these neurological disorders involves the direct role of the virus, some antiretroviral treatments, and the dysregulated immune system. Furthermore, the high prevalence of epilepsy in SSA (mainly due to perinatal causes) is exacerbated by infections such as toxoplasmosis, neurocysticercosis, onchocerciasis, malaria, bacterial meningitis, tuberculosis, and the immune reactions they elicit. Sleep disorders are another common problem in the region and have been associated with infectious diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis and HIV and involve the activation of the immune system. While most headache disorders are due to benign primary headaches, some secondary headaches are caused by infections (meningitis, encephalitis, brain abscess). HIV and neurosyphilis, both common in SSA, can trigger long-standing immune activation in the central nervous system (CNS) potentially resulting in dementia. Despite the progress achieved in preventing diseases from the poliovirus and retroviruses, these microbes may cause motor neuron diseases in SSA. The immune mechanisms involved in these neurological disorders include increased cytokine levels, immune cells infiltration into the CNS, and autoantibodies. This review focuses on the major neurological disorders relevant to Africa and neuroinfections highly prevalent in SSA, describes the interplay between neuroinfections, immune system, neuroinflammation, and neurological disorders, and how understanding this can be exploited for the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for improved patient care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Wei Tu ◽  
Yu-Ye Li ◽  
Yi-Qun Kuang ◽  
Rong-Hui Xie ◽  
Xing-Qi Dong ◽  

Abstract Background Yunnan has the highest rates of HIV in China. Other treatable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with accelerated HIV transmission and poor ART outcomes, but are only diagnosed by syndromic algorithms. Methods We recruited 406 HIV-positive participants for a cross-sectional study (204 ART-naive and 202 receiving ART). Blood samples and first-voided urine samples were collected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction methods were used for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) tests were also performed. Results Among the 406 participants, the overall prevalence of STIs was 47.0% and 45.1% in ART-naive individuals and 49.0% in individuals receiving ART, respectively. The testing frequencies were 11.6% (11.8% vs. 11.4%), 33.2% (29.4% vs. 37.1%), 3.2% (3.4% vs. 3.0%), 2.0% (3.4% vs. 0.5%) and 4.7% (6.4% vs. 3.0%) for active syphilis, HSV-2, CT, NG and MG, respectively. The percentage of multiple infections in both groups was 10.8% (22/204) in ART-naive participants and 9.9% (20/202) in participants receiving ART. Female sex, an age between 18 and 35 years, ever injecting drugs, homosexual or bisexual status, HIV/HBV coinfection, and not receiving ART were identified as risk factors. Self-reported asymptomatic patients were not eliminated from having a laboratory-diagnosed STI. Conclusions The STI prevalence was 47.0% (45.1% vs. 49.0%), and HSV-2, syphilis and MG were the most common STIs in HIV-infected individuals. We found a high prevalence (6.4%) of MG in ART-naive individuals. HIV-positive individuals tend to neglect or hide their genital tract discomfort; thus, we suggest strengthening STI joint screening and treatment services among HIV-infected individuals regardless of whether they describe genital tract discomfort.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 370
Ikuko Okuni ◽  
Satoru Ebihara

Oropharyngeal dysphagia, a clinical condition that indicates difficulty in moving food and liquid from the oral cavity to the esophagus, has a markedly high prevalence in the elderly. The number of elderly people with oropharyngeal dysphagia is expected to increase due to the aging of the world’s population. Understanding the current situation of dysphagia screening is crucial when considering future countermeasures. We report findings from a literature review including citations on current objective dysphagia screening tests: the Water Swallowing Test, Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, and the Gugging Swallowing Screen. Pneumonia can be predicted using the results of the screening tests discussed in this review, and the response after the screening tests is important for prevention. In addition, although interdisciplinary team approaches prevent and reduce aspiration, optimal treatment is a challenging. Intervention studies with multiple factors focusing on the elderly are needed.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 164
Sandra Orrù ◽  
Emanuele Pascariello ◽  
Giovanni Sotgiu ◽  
Daniela Piras ◽  
Laura Saderi ◽  

HER2+ breast cancer (BC) is an aggressive subtype representing a genetically and biologically heterogeneous group of tumors resulting in variable prognosis and treatment response to HER2-targeted therapies according to estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The relationship with androgen receptors (AR), a member of the steroid hormone’s family, is unwell known in BC. The present study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of AR expression in HER2+ BC subtypes. A total of 695 BCs were selected and reviewed, AR, ER, PR and HER2 expression in tumor cells were examined by immunohistochemical method, and the SISH method was used in case of HER2 with equivocal immunohistochemical score (2+). A high prevalence of AR expression (91.5%) in BC HER+ was observed, with minimal differences between luminal and non-luminal tumor. According to steroid receptor expression, tumors were classified in four subgroups, including BC luminal and non-luminal HER2+ expressing or not AR. The luminal BC HER2 + AR+ was associated with lower histological grade, lower tumor size, higher PR expression and lower HER2 intensity of expression (2+). Also, the non-luminal tumors AR+ showed lower tumor size and lower prognostic stage but frequently higher grade and higher HER2 intensity of expression (3+). These findings should suggest a different progression of luminal and non-luminal tumors, both expressing AR, and allow us to speculate that the molecular mechanisms of AR, involved in the biology of BC HER2 + AR+, differ in relation to ER and PR expression. Moreover, AR expression may be a useful predictor of prognosis for overall survival (OS) in HER2+ BC subtypes. Our findings suggest that AR expression evaluation in clinical practice could be utilized in clinical oncology to establish different aggressiveness in BC HER2+ subtypes.

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