preliminary investigation
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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Juliette Aychet ◽  
Noémie Monchy ◽  
Catherine Blois-Heulin ◽  
Alban Lemasson

Catarrhine primates gesture preferentially with their right hands, which led to the hypothesis of a gestural origin of human left-hemispheric specialization for language. However, the factors influencing this gestural laterality remain understudied in non-hominoid species, particularly in intraspecific contexts, although it may bring valuable insights into the proximate and ultimate causes of language lateralization. We present here a preliminary investigation of intraspecific gestural laterality in catarrhine monkeys, red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus). We described the spontaneous production of brachio-manual intentional gestures in twenty-five captive subjects. Although we did not evidence any significant gestural lateralization neither at the individual- nor population-level, we found that mangabeys preferentially use their right hands to gesture in negative social contexts, such as aggressions, suggesting an effect of emotional lateralization, and that they adapt to the position of their receiver by preferentially using their ipsilateral hand to communicate. These results corroborate previous findings from ape studies. By contrast, factors related to gesture form and socio-demographic characteristics of signaler and receiver did not affect gestural laterality. To understand better the relationships between gestural laterality and brain lateralization from an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that the gestural communication of other monkey species should be examined with a multifactorial approach.

Doan Thi Oanh ◽  
Duong Thi Thuy ◽  
Nguyen Thi Nhu Huong ◽  
Hoang Thi Quynh ◽  
Phung Duc Hieu ◽  

Microplastics (particles with a size of less than 5 mm) are a rising environmental problem. Microplastics can disseminate in the air and accumulate in sediments as well as in microorganisms and humans, due to their small size. Sediment is considered to be the major repository of microplastics, particularly those of the PE type. Microplastics in massive amounts accumulated in sediments, perhaps as a result of point sources or diffuse contamination. Microplastic contamination can spread from industrial production facilities, urban areas, agricultural areas, or the air. The current study was carried out to explore the occurrence of MPs in sediments at discharge sources by evaluating 27 sediment samples taken from 9 distinct waste sources from industrial activity locations to determine the amount of microplastic contamination in sediments at discharge sources. Microplastics with relatively high density were found in all sediment samples in this research, ranging from 2,900 to 238,200 particles/kg dw. The most prevalent microplastics detected in sediment samples at these sites were fibers and fragments, accounting for 59-94% and 6-41%, respectively. Fiber microplastics ranged in size from 1000 to 9,000 µm, whereas fragment microplastics ranged from 200,000 to 2,100,000 µm2. Microplastics with < 1000 µm and 1000-2000 µm sizes accounted for a significant portion of the total, reaching 21.05-37.84% and 39.74-61.17%, respectively. The hue of microplastic particles in sediment samples obtained was highly varied.

Matthew E. Cook ◽  
Martin S. Brook ◽  
Jon Tunnicliffe ◽  
Murry Cave ◽  
Noah P. Gulick

Recently uplifted, soft Pleistocene sediments in northern New Zealand are particularly vulnerable to landsliding because they are often underlain by less permeable, clay-rich Neogene mudstone/siltstone rocks. Typically, instability is rainfall-induced, often due to a high intensity rainfall event from extra-tropical cyclones, following wetter months when antecedent soil moisture has increased. Using remote sensing, field surveys and laboratory testing, we report on some emerging slope instability hazards in the eastern suburbs of the coastal city of Gisborne, on the North Island. Retrogressive failure of the main landslide (at Wallis Road) is ongoing and has already led to the abandonment of one home, while an adjacent landslide (at Titirangi Drive) appears to be in an incipient phase of failure. The Wallis Road landslide has been particularly active from mid-2017, with slumping of the headscarp area transitioning to a constrained mudflow downslope, which then descends a cliff before terminating on the beach. In contrast, the incipient Titirangi Drive landslide at present displays much more subtle effects of deformation. While activity at both landslides appears to be linked to rainfall-induced increases in soil moisture, this is due to the effects of prolonged periods of rainfall rather than the passage of high intensity cyclonic storms.

Adam Crepelle ◽  
Tate Fegley ◽  
Ilia Murtazashvili ◽  
Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili

Abstract In the 1970s, Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues found that neighborhood policing works better than metropolitan policing. Though Ostrom articulated design principles for self-governance, the early studies of neighborhood policing did not. In this paper, we articulate the design principles for self-governing policing, which we term Ostrom-Compliant Policing. We then apply this framework to an understudied case: policing on American Indian reservations. Policing in Indian country generally falls into one of three categories – federal policing (by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Federal Bureau of Investigation), state policing (by municipal and state police departments), and tribal policing (by tribal police departments) – that vary in the degree of centralization. Our main contribution is to show that tribal policing as it is practiced in the United States, which claims to be self-governing, is not Ostrom-Compliant. Thus, our approach offers insight into why high crime remains an ongoing challenge in much of Indian country even when tribes have primary control over policing outcomes. This does not mean centralization is better, or that self-governance of policing does not work. Rather, our research suggests that a greater tribal autonomy over-policing and meta-political changes to federal rules governing criminal jurisdictions is necessary to implement Ostromian policing.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152574012110671
Jean F. Rivera Pérez ◽  
Nancy A. Creaghead ◽  
Karla Washington ◽  
Ying Guo ◽  
Lesley Raisor-Becker ◽  

This preliminary study examined the relationship between clinicians’ perceptions (i.e., speech pathologists) of children’s scores on the Assertiveness scale of the Teacher-Child Rating Scale 2.1 and gains in naming and defining words following English-only or Spanish–English intervention for emergent bilinguals (EBs). Twenty-eight Spanish-speaking preschoolers were randomly assigned to participate in one of two vocabulary intervention groups: English-only ( n= 14) and Spanish-English with Spanish provided through a tablet computer ( n = 14). EBs were assessed in naming and definition before and after interventions. The clinicians provided perceptions of levels of assertiveness and shyness of both groups of EBs using the Assertiveness scale. A correlation analysis indicated a strong relationship between the Assertiveness scale and English word naming and definition gains in both groups (English-only and Spanish–English) and Spanish gains in the Spanish–English group. Clinicians’ perceptions of shyness should be considered as a variable of interest that affects response to intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Biradar Shivaleela ◽  
S. C. Srushti ◽  
S. J. Shreedevi ◽  
R. L. Babu

Abstract Background Inflammatory diseases are the vast array of disorders caused by inflammation. During most inflammatory events, many cytokines expressions were modulated, and one such cytokine is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α is mainly secreted by monocytes and macrophages. Notably, it has been proposed as a therapeutic target for several diseases. The anti-TNF biology approach is mainly based on monoclonal antibodies. The fusion protein and biosimilars are prevalent in treating inflammation for decades. Only a few small molecule inhibitors are available to inhibit the expression of TNF-α, and one such promising drug was thalidomide. Therefore, the study was carried out to design thalidomide-based small molecule inhibitors for TNF-α. The main objective of our study is to design thalidomide analogs to inhibit TNF-α using the insilico approach. Results Several thalidomide analogs were designed using chemsketch. After filtration of compounds through ‘Lipinski rule of 5’ by Molinspiration tool, as a result, five compounds were selected. All these compounds were subjected to molecular docking, and the study showed that all five compounds had good binding energy. However, based on ADMET predictions, two compounds (S3 and S5) were eliminated. Conclusions Our preliminary results suggest that S1, S2, S4 compounds showed potential ligand binding capacity with TNF-α and, interestingly, with limited or no toxicity. Our preliminary investigation and obtained results have fashioned more interest for further in vitro studies.

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