misfolded proteins
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 780
Shuvadeep Maity ◽  
Pragya Komal ◽  
Vaishali Kumar ◽  
Anshika Saxena ◽  
Ayesha Tungekar ◽  

Accumulation of misfolded proteins is a common phenomenon of several neurodegenerative diseases. The misfolding of proteins due to abnormal polyglutamine (PolyQ) expansions are linked to the development of PolyQ diseases including Huntington’s disease (HD). Though the genetic basis of PolyQ repeats in HD remains prominent, the primary molecular basis mediated by PolyQ toxicity remains elusive. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER or disruption of ER homeostasis causes ER stress and activates an evolutionarily conserved pathway called Unfolded protein response (UPR). Protein homeostasis disruption at organelle level involving UPR or ER stress response pathways are found to be linked to HD. Due to dynamic intricate connections between ER and mitochondria, proteins at ER-mitochondria contact sites (mitochondria associated ER membranes or MAMs) play a significant role in HD development. The current review aims at highlighting the most updated information about different UPR pathways and their involvement in HD disease progression. Moreover, the role of MAMs in HD progression has also been discussed. In the end, the review has focused on the therapeutic interventions responsible for ameliorating diseased states via modulating either ER stress response proteins or modulating the expression of ER-mitochondrial contact proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 649
Siarhei A. Dabravolski ◽  
Vasily N. Sukhorukov ◽  
Vladislav A. Kalmykov ◽  
Nikolay A. Orekhov ◽  
Andrey V. Grechko ◽  

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally, representing approximately 32% of all deaths worldwide. Molecular chaperones are involved in heart protection against stresses and age-mediated accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins by regulation of the protein synthesis/degradation balance and refolding of misfolded proteins, thus supporting the high metabolic demand of the heart cells. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is one of the main cardioprotective chaperones, represented by cytosolic HSP90a and HSP90b, mitochondrial TRAP1 and ER-localised Grp94 isoforms. Currently, the main way to study the functional role of HSPs is the application of HSP inhibitors, which could have a different way of action. In this review, we discussed the recently investigated role of HSP90 proteins in cardioprotection, atherosclerosis, CVDs development and the involvements of HSP90 clients in the activation of different molecular pathways and signalling mechanisms, related to heart ageing.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (1) ◽  
Lea Daverkausen-Fischer ◽  
Felicitas Pröls

AbstractAccumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces a well-orchestrated cellular response to reduce the protein burden within the ER. This unfolded protein response (UPR) is controlled primarily by three transmembrane proteins, IRE1α, ATF6, and PERK, the activity of which is controlled by BiP, the ER-resident Hsp70 protein. Binding of BiP to co-chaperones via their highly conserved J-domains stimulates the intrinsic ATPase activity of BiP, thereby providing the energy necessary for (re-)folding of proteins, or for targeting of misfolded proteins to the degradation pathway, processes specified and controlled by the respective co-chaperone. In this review, our aim is to elucidate the function of the co-chaperone ERDJ4, also known as MDG1, MDJ7, or DNAJB9. Knockout and knockin experiments clearly point to the central role of ERDJ4 in controlling lipogenesis and protein synthesis by promoting degradation of SREBP1c and the assembly of the protein complex mTORC2. Accumulating data reveal that ERDJ4 controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a central process during embryogenesis, in wound healing, and tumor development. Overexpression of ERdj4 has been shown to improve engraftment of transplanted human stem cells, possibly due to its ability to promote cellular survival in stressed cells. High ERDJ4-plasma levels are specific for fibrillary glomerulonephritis and serve as a diagnostic marker. As outlined in this review, the functions of ERDJ4 are manifold, depending on the cellular (patho-) physiological state, the cellular protein repertoire, and the subcellular localization of ERDJ4.

2021 ◽  
Amanda B Abildgaard ◽  
Søren D Petersen ◽  
Fia B Larsen ◽  
Caroline Kampmeyer ◽  
Kristoffer E Johansson ◽  

Protein quality control (PQC) degrons are short protein segments that target misfolded proteins for degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). To uncover how PQC degrons function, we performed a screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fusing a library of flexible tetrapeptides to the C-terminus of the Ura3-HA-GFP reporter. The identified degrons exhibited high sequence variation but with marked hydrophobicity. Notably, the best scoring degrons constitute predicted Hsp70-binding motifs. When directly tested, a canonical Hsp70 binding motif (RLLL) functioned as a dose-dependent PQC degron that was targeted by Hsp70, Hsp110, Fes1, several Hsp40 J-domain co-chaperones and the PQC E3 ligase Ubr1. Our results suggest that multiple PQC degrons overlap with chaperone-binding sites and that PQC-linked degradation achieves specificity via chaperone binding. Thus, the PQC system has evolved to exploit the intrinsic capacity of chaperones to recognize misfolded proteins, thereby placing them at the nexus of protein folding and degradation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Hiroaki Kaku ◽  
Alexander V. Ludlow ◽  
Michael F. Gutknecht ◽  
Thomas L. Rothstein

A number of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In AD, misfolded proteins such as tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) form pathological insoluble deposits. It is hypothesized that molecules capable of dissolving such protein aggregates might reverse disease progression and improve the lives of afflicted AD patients. Here we report new functions of the highly conserved mammalian protein, Fas Apoptosis Inhibitory Molecule (FAIM). We found that FAIM-deficient Neuro 2A cells accumulate Aβ oligomers/fibrils. We further found that recombinant human FAIM prevents the generation of pathologic Aβ oligomers and fibrils in a cell-free system, suggesting that FAIM functions without any additional cellular components. More importantly, recombinant human FAIM disaggregates and solubilizes established Aβ fibrils. Our results identify a previously unknown, completely novel candidate for understanding and treating irremediable, irreversible, and unrelenting neurodegenerative diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13398
Mustafa T Ardah ◽  
Nabil Eid ◽  
Tohru Kitada ◽  
M. Emdadul Haque

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons and the deposition of misfolded proteins known as Lewy bodies (LBs), which contain α-synuclein (α-syn). The causes and molecular mechanisms of PD are not clearly understood to date. However, misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, and impaired autophagy are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of PD. Importantly, α-syn is considered a key player in the development of PD. The present study aimed to assess the role of Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenol found in many fruits, on α-syn aggregation and toxicity. Using thioflavin and seeding polymerization assays, in addition to electron microscopy, we found that EA could dramatically reduce α-syn aggregation. Moreover, EA significantly mitigated the aggregated α-syn-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and thus enhanced their viability. Mechanistically, these cytoprotective effects of EA are mediated by the suppression of apoptotic proteins BAX and p53 and a concomitant increase in the anti-apoptotic protein, BCL-2. Interestingly, EA was able to activate autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, as evidenced by normalized/enhanced expression of LC3-II, p62, and pAKT. Together, our findings suggest that EA may attenuate α-syn toxicity by preventing aggregation and improving viability by restoring autophagy and suppressing apoptosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (49) ◽  
pp. e2108163118
Hubert Wyszkowski ◽  
Anna Janta ◽  
Wiktoria Sztangierska ◽  
Igor Obuchowski ◽  
Tomasz Chamera ◽  

Protein homeostasis is constantly being challenged with protein misfolding that leads to aggregation. Hsp70 is one of the versatile chaperones that interact with misfolded proteins and actively support their folding. Multifunctional Hsp70s are harnessed to specific roles by J-domain proteins (JDPs, also known as Hsp40s). Interaction with the J-domain of these cochaperones stimulates ATP hydrolysis in Hsp70, which stabilizes substrate binding. In eukaryotes, two classes of JDPs, Class A and Class B, engage Hsp70 in the reactivation of aggregated proteins. In most species, excluding metazoans, protein recovery also relies on an Hsp100 disaggregase. Although intensely studied, many mechanistic details of how the two JDP classes regulate protein disaggregation are still unknown. Here, we explore functional differences between the yeast Class A (Ydj1) and Class B (Sis1) JDPs at the individual stages of protein disaggregation. With real-time biochemical tools, we show that Ydj1 alone is superior to Sis1 in aggregate binding, yet it is Sis1 that recruits more Ssa1 molecules to the substrate. This advantage of Sis1 depends on its ability to bind to the EEVD motif of Hsp70, a quality specific to most of Class B JDPs. This second interaction also conditions the Hsp70-induced aggregate modification that boosts its subsequent dissolution by the Hsp104 disaggregase. Our results suggest that the Sis1-mediated chaperone assembly at the aggregate surface potentiates the entropic pulling, driven polypeptide disentanglement, while Ydj1 binding favors the refolding of the solubilized proteins. Such subspecialization of the JDPs across protein reactivation improves the robustness and efficiency of the disaggregation machinery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Adrián Cortés Sanchón ◽  
Harshitha Santhosh Kumar ◽  
Matilde Mantovani ◽  
Ivan Osinnii ◽  
José María Mateos ◽  

AbstractProteostasis is a challenge for cellular organisms, as all known protein synthesis machineries are error-prone. Here we show by cell fractionation and microscopy studies that misfolded proteins formed in the endoplasmic reticulum can become associated with and partly transported into mitochondria, resulting in impaired mitochondrial function. Blocking the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES), but not the mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) or the mitochondrial surveillance pathway components Msp1 and Vms1, abrogated mitochondrial sequestration of ER-misfolded proteins. We term this mitochondria-associated proteostatic mechanism for ER-misfolded proteins ERAMS (ER-associated mitochondrial sequestration). We testify to the relevance of this pathway by using mutant α-1-antitrypsin as an example of a human disease-related misfolded ER protein, and we hypothesize that ERAMS plays a role in pathological features such as mitochondrial dysfunction.

Autophagy ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Jeffrey Knupp ◽  
Yu-Jie Chen ◽  
Anoop Arunagiri ◽  
Leena Haataja ◽  
Peter Arvan ◽  

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