Clinical Suspicion
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Somy Charuvila ◽  
Tasmiah Tahera Aziz ◽  
Sarah E. Davidson ◽  
Ummay Naznin ◽  
Shiuly Sinha ◽  

Abstract Background Paediatric anaemia is highly prevalent in low–middle-income countries and can negatively impact postoperative outcomes. Currently, there are no guidelines for the management of paediatric preoperative anaemia. To ensure optimal care in resource-limited settings: balancing the risks of anaemia and using resources such as blood transfusion, we first need to understand current practices. To address this, a joint UK–Bangladesh team conducted an observational study at a paediatric surgical centre in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 464 patients ≤16 years who underwent elective and emergency surgery were categorised into major (351/464), moderate (92/464) and minor (21/464) surgery groups according to anticipated blood loss. Preoperative anaemia testing and transfusion was assessed retrospectively through patient notes. Results Median age was 4 years and 73% were male. 32.5% (151/464) patients had preoperative blood testing for anaemia. 17.5% (81/464) children were transfused preoperatively. Of those children transfused, 40.7% (33/81) underwent transfusion solely based on visible signs of anaemia on clinical examination. Seventy-five percentage (36/48) of children who underwent transfusion after blood testing had haemoglobin ≥80 g/L. Major surgery category had the highest proportion of children who were transfused and tested for anaemia. Conclusion A liberal transfusion approach is evident here. Discussion with local clinicians revealed that this was due to limitations in obtaining timely blood results and reduction in laboratory costs incurred by families when clinical suspicion of anaemia was high. Further research is needed to analyse the potential of using bedside haemoglobin testers in conjunction with patient blood management strategies to limit blood transfusions and its associated risks.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107815522110722
Merve Korkmaz Yilmaz ◽  
Ilkay Gulturk ◽  
Seher Yildiz Tacar ◽  
Mesut Yilmaz

Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are being commonly used to treat solid tumours such as renal cell carcinoma. Hypophysitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland and nivolumab or pembrolizumab induced hypophysitis is markedly lower compared to ipilimumab. Case report: We present a novel case of a patient with mRCC who was diagnosed with nivolumab induced hypophysitis based on clinical suspicion due to his hormonal profile and a range of symptoms that he developed during nivolumab immunotherapy. Management and outcome: He was treated with high dose of hydrocortisone administered intravenously, subsequently changed to the oral route and physiologic dose. Discussion: Nivolumab induced hypophysitis is a rare condition that usually presents with fewer symptoms. High degree of clinical suspicion and a multidisciplinary team required to diagnose and treat such cases.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110547
Charles W. Armistead ◽  
Lauren E. Favors ◽  
Vincente A. Mejia

Gallbladder volvulus is a rare condition involving the rotation of the gallbladder about the cystic duct and vascular pedicle, compromising biliary drainage and blood flow. This report describes a case of gallbladder volvulus presenting in an 88-year-old female with acute onset of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Complete work-up included a physical exam, laboratory studies, and computed tomography (CT), which was notable for a markedly distended gallbladder with circumferential wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, a 12 mm common bile duct, and a hiatal hernia. Given that her initial presentation was consistent with acute cholecystitis, we elected to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The definitive diagnosis of gallbladder volvulus was made intraoperatively after decompression of the gallbladder and visualization of counterclockwise rotation of the gallbladder around the hilum and the infundibulum. This case illustrates the challenge in preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder volvulus, which requires high clinical suspicion to provide prompt surgical intervention.

Christopher Paul Bengel ◽  
Rifat Kacapor

Abstract Background Vaccination is the most important measure to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Myocarditis has been reported as a rare adverse reaction to COVID-19 vaccines. The clinical presentation of myocarditis in such cases can range from mild general symptoms to acute heart failure. Case summary We report the cases of two young men who presented with chest pain and dyspnoea following the administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Cardiac investigations revealed findings typical of acute myocarditis. Discussion Myocarditis is a rare complication following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. In this case series, the temporal proximity of the development of acute myocarditis and the administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was acknowledged. In the absence of other causative factors, myocarditis in these patients potentially occurred due to an adverse reaction to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. However, a causal relationship remains speculative. Clinical suspicion of myocarditis should be high if patients present with chest pain or dyspnoea after receiving COVID-19 vaccination.

Julia Fallon ◽  
Swati Narayan ◽  
Jun Lin ◽  
Jodi Sassoon ◽  
Stephanie Llop

Abstract Background Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a well-accepted adjunct in the management of infectious uveitis. In turn, few reports in the literature have evaluated how PCR then impacts patient care. This study aims to evaluate the impact of PCR sampling on diagnosis and treatment of infectious uveitidies at a large tertiary care facility. Main body This is a retrospective, observational study of patients with aqueous and vitreous PCR samples obtained from 2014 to 2019. The study was undertaken at a single institution. At least one follow up visit following results of PCR testing was required for inclusion. If a patient had multiple PCR samples taken, only the first sample was included. The patients were divided into three categories based on pre-sampling diagnosis. A chi-square test was used to analyze the data. 108 cases were available for analysis. PCR did not change diagnosis or management in any of the cases where pre-sampling diagnosis carried a high clinical suspicion for negative PCR. Overall, the results of PCR testing had a more significant impact on diagnosis in those cases where pre-sampling diagnosis was unknown versus those where it was confirmatory in nature, thus presumed to be related to an infectious entity tested by PCR (74% vs. 29%, p = 0.00006). The rate of treatment change based on PCR was similar between those cases where there was a high clinical suspicion for positive PCR and those where pre-sampling diagnosis was unknown (32% vs. 33%, p = 0.95). Further analyzing specimens separately depending on source of sample, this pattern persisted for aqueous samples, with PCR showing a more significant impact on diagnosis in those cases where the diagnosis was unknown versus those where sampling was confirmatory (86% vs. 31%, p = 0.00004). The rate of change in treatment between the two groups was similar (35% vs. 31%, p = 0.79). Vitreous samples followed a similar pattern with a higher rate of diagnosis change for those cases where pre-sampling diagnosis was unknown and a similar rate in treatment change between the two groups, however this did not reach statistical signifigance (44% vs. 25%, p = 0.28; 27% vs. 33%, p = 0.74). Conclusion There is no well-defined algorithm as to when to employ PCR testing in uveitis. As expected, in our experience, it has the largest impact on diagnosis when the diagnosis is unknown, however even when confirmatory in nature, it continues to impact patient management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 8-12
Ilaria Corsini ◽  
Davide Leardini ◽  
Filomena Carfagnini ◽  
Andrea Pession ◽  
Marcello Lanari

Pericardial effusion is rare in pediatric patients and is characterized by a variable clinical presentation. Mild symptoms may be present despite severe effusion. We here report the case of a patient with massive pericardial effusion with mild clinical presentation. Our case points out the need not to exclude this diagnosis in patients with mild general impairment. This clinical suspicion can be lifesaving.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e245174
Rohith George ◽  
Sydney D'Souza ◽  
Ibrahim Masoodi

Being a region endemic for leprosy, clinical practitioners in India often encounter myriad manifestations and diverse complications of the disease. However, the masking of the obvious clinical presentations due to the coexistence of a closely resembling unrelated disorder, a ‘mimicker’, would indeed pose a serious diagnostic predicament unless a high degree of clinical suspicion is maintained. Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae complex that involves the skin and peripheral nerves. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) also known as von Recklinghausen’s disease is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that presents with skin changes and benign peripheral nerve sheath tumours called neurofibromas. Here, we present the case of a 35-year-old man with NF1 who presented with type 2 lepra reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum, ENL) and the skin biopsy unmasked ENL nodule among the group of NF1 nodules.

Ignacio Alvarez de Toledo ◽  
Jessica DeLong

Female urethral stricture (FUS) is a rare condition. It was not studied robustly for many years, but interest has grown recently in the reconstructive urology community, leading to an increase in publications. In this review, we gather the latest data regarding FUS and its different therapeutic options. Studies are summarized, split by technique. We also review the recently published European Guidelines. In addition, we share our preferred surgical technique and our views on future options. Diagnosing FUS can often be challenging and requires a high index of clinical suspicion. Its vague clinical symptoms and empiric initial treatments combine to make FUS an underdiagnosed condition. The lack of consensus on how to define FUS also compounds the problem. Appropriate diagnosis requires thorough investigation, and ancillary studies such as video urodynamics, cystoscopy, and voiding cystourethrogram may be useful. Treatment options range from conservative management to definitive procedures, although studies have shown that conservative measures such as urethral dilation have a low success rate overall. Within definitive management, augmented urethroplasty - using either flaps or grafts, has proven to be the gold standard. Both have shown excellent results over time; however, there is insufficient data available to recommend one over the other. Contemporary data has an overall poor level of evidence. Although challenging due to the rarity of the problem, a proper randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the principal surgical options and their outcomes would be beneficial and would allow for more informed decision making when considering options for women with urethral stricture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 478-481
Sangeetha Kandasamy ◽  
Megala Chandrasekar ◽  
Thamilselvi Ramachadran

Introduction: Fungal Rhinosinusitis is broadly defined as any sinonasal pathology related to the presence of fungi and is increasingly recognized worldwide. This study aimed to assess and ascertain the need for histopathological examination in the management of fungal Rhinosinusitis. Materials and Methods:  This study was performed over two years, from April 2019 to April 2021, in the Department of Pathology, Vinayaka Missions KirupanandaVariyar Medical College and Hospital, Salem. A total of 383 cases of rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps were studied. Histopathological examination and categorization were done and compared with clinical diagnosis. Results: Only 4/18 cases of acute fungal Rhinosinusitis were correctly diagnosed(22.22%). Nineteen cases of the fungal ball were diagnosed, but none was correctly categorized. Clinical suspicion of fungal sinusitis was present in 10 cases of Rhinosinusitis, which turned out to be chronic Rhinosinusitis in histopathology. In AFRS, fungal elements were overlooked in Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides and identified only by Grocottmethenamine silver in one-fourth of the cases. Conclusions: Though clinical diagnosis was made in 86% of fungal rhinosinusitis cases, correct categorization was done only in one-third of cases. CT scan could diagnose 60% of cases, but none was categorized. As treatment depends on the type of fungal Rhinosinusitis, histopathological examination is the gold standard for diagnosing and treating fungal Rhinosinusitis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Alejandra Sandoval C ◽  
María Paz Romero O ◽  
Carolina Guerra E ◽  
Carolina Riquelme B ◽  

Introduction: Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that causes various clinical diseases, including necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns. The progression could be fulminant and lethal. Presentation of the cases: We report 3 cases of necrotizing enterocolitis due to C. perfringens from 2 high-complexity public centers in Chile. Conclusion: Strong clinical suspicion combined with early microbiological identification may modify patient evolution. Anaerobic blood cultures have become a fundamental diagnostic method; therefore, having this tool in neonatal units would be useful

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