Menthol in Combination with Iontophoresis Promotes Natamycin Penetration through the Cornea: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

J. H. Bai ◽  
X. M. Ding ◽  
H. Y. Mou ◽  
S. L. Wang ◽  
S. H. Chen
2001 ◽  
Vol 5 (8) ◽  
pp. 645-651
M. Peeva ◽  
M. Shopova ◽  
U. Michelsen ◽  
D. Wöhrle ◽  
G. Petrov ◽  

2005 ◽  
Vol 25 (1_suppl) ◽  
pp. S198-S198
Joseph R Meno ◽  
Thien-son K Nguyen ◽  
Elise M Jensen ◽  
G Alexander West ◽  
Leonid Groysman ◽  

1994 ◽  
Vol 72 (06) ◽  
pp. 942-946 ◽  
Raffaele Landolfi ◽  
Erica De Candia ◽  
Bianca Rocca ◽  
Giovanni Ciabattoni ◽  
Armando Antinori ◽  

SummarySeveral “in vitro” and “in vivo” studies indicate that heparin administration may affect platelet function. In this study we investigated the effects of prophylactic heparin on thromboxane (Tx)A2 biosynthesis “in vivo”, as assessed by the urinary excretion of major enzymatic metabolites 11-dehydro-TxB2 and 2,3-dinor-TxB2. Twenty-four patients who were candidates for cholecystectomy because of uncomplicated lithiasis were randomly assigned to receive placebo, unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin or unfractionaed heparin plus 100 mg aspirin. Measurements of daily excretion of Tx metabolites were performed before and during the treatment. In the groups assigned to placebo and to low molecular weight heparin there was no statistically significant modification of Tx metabolite excretion while patients receiving unfractionated heparin had a significant increase of both metabolites (11-dehydro-TxB2: 3844 ± 1388 vs 2092 ±777, p <0.05; 2,3-dinor-TxB2: 2737 ± 808 vs 1535 ± 771 pg/mg creatinine, p <0.05). In patients randomized to receive low-dose aspirin plus unfractionated heparin the excretion of the two metabolites was largely suppressed thus suggesting that platelets are the primary source of enhanced thromboxane biosynthesis associated with heparin administration. These data indicate that unfractionated heparin causes platelet activation “in vivo” and suggest that the use of low molecular weight heparin may avoid this complication.

2020 ◽  
Vol 72 (5) ◽  
Mario Fadin ◽  
Maria C. Nicoletti ◽  
Marzia Pellizzato ◽  
Manuela Accardi ◽  
Maria G. Baietti ◽  

Bhikshapathi D. V. R. N. ◽  
Kanteepan P

Rebamipide, an amino acid derivative of 2-(1H)-quinolinone, is used for mucosal protection, healing of gastroduodenal ulcers, and treatment of gastritis. The current research study aimed to develop novel gastro-retentive mucoadhesive microspheres of rebamipide using ionotropic gelation technique. Studies of micromeritic properties confirmed that microspheres were free flowing with good packability. The in vitro drug release showed the sustained release of rebamipide up to 99.23 ± 0.13% within 12 h whereas marketed product displayed the drug release of 95.15 ± 0.23% within 1 h. The release mechanism from microspheres followed the zero-order and Korsmeyer-Peppas (R2 = 0.915, 0.969), respectively. The optimized M12 formulation displayed optimum features, such as entrapment efficiency 97%, particle size 61.94 ± 0.11 µm, percentage yield 98%, swelling index 95% and mucoadhesiveness was 97%. FTIR studies revealed no major incompatibility between drug and excipients. SEM confirmed the particles were of spherical in shape. Optimized formulation (M12) were stable at 40°C ± 2°C/75% RH ± 5% RH for 6 months. In vivo studies were performed and kinetic parameters like Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, t1/2, and Kel  were calculated. The marketed product Cmax (3.15 ± 0.05 ng/mL) was higher than optimized formulation (2.58 ± 0.03 ng/mL). The optimized formulation AUC0-t (15.25 ± 1.14, AUC0-∞ (19.42 ± 1.24 was significantly higher than that of marketed product AUC0-t (10.21 ± 1.26 and AUC0-∞ (13.15 ± 0.05 These results indicate an optimized formulation bioavailability of 2.5-fold greater than marketed product.  

Narendar Dudhipala ◽  
Arjun Narala ◽  
Dinesh Suram ◽  
Karthik Yadav Janga

The objective of this present study is to develop a semisolid dispersion (SSD) of zaleplon with the aid of self-emulsifying lipid based amphiphilic carriers (TPGS E or Gelucire 44/14) addressing the poor solubility of this drug. A linear relationship between the solubility of drug with respect to increase in the concentration of lipid surfactant in aqueous medium resulting in AL type phase diagram was observed from phase solubility studies. Fusion method was employed to obtain semisolid dispersions (SSD) of zaleplon which showed high content uniformity of drug. The absence of chemical interactions between the pure drug, excipients and formulations were conferred by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopic examinations. The photographic images from polarized optical microscopic studies revealed the change in crystalline form of drug to amorphous or molecular state. The superior dissolution parameters of zaleplon from SSD over pure crystalline drug interpreted from in vitro dissolution studies envisage the ability of these lipid surfactants as solubility enhancers. Further, the caliber of TPGS E or Gelucire 44/14 in encouraging the GI absorption of drug was evident with the higher human effective permeability coefficient and fraction oral dose of drug absorbed from SSD in situ intestinal permeation study. In conclusion, in vivo studies in Wister rats demonstrated an improvement in the oral bioavailability of zaleplon from SSD over control pure drug suspension suggesting the competence of Gelucire 44/14 and TPGS E as conscientious carriers to augment the dissolution rate limited bioavailability of this active

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