vascular endothelial
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1040-1045
Jingfang Zhu ◽  
Jianglin Hu

Preeclampsia (PE) causes serious harm to the health of mothers and infants. PTEN regulates cell biological behaviors, but its role in preeclampsia have not been reported. Real time PCR and Western blot detected PTEN level in the placenta of PE patients and controls. Placental trophoblastderived cell line HTR8 was assigned into NC group, PTEN group and si-PTEN inhibitor group followed by measuring PTEN level, cell proliferation by MTT assay, cell invasion by Transwell, Caspase 3 activity, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 expression as well as PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling protein by Western blot. PTEN in PE patients was significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). Transfection of PTEN siRNA significantly down-regulated PTEN, promoted cell proliferation and invasion, reduced Caspase 3 activity, increased Beclin-1 and Atg-5, and PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF protein expression (P < 0.05). Transfection of pcDNA 3.0-PTEN up-regulated PTEN and significantly reversed the above changes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, PTEN is reduced in PE and it can regulate pre-eclampsia trophoblast autophagy possibly through PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling, suggesting that PTEN can be a potential target for PE therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 931
Siarhei A. Dabravolski ◽  
Victoria A. Khotina ◽  
Andrey V. Omelchenko ◽  
Vladislav A. Kalmykov ◽  
Alexander N. Orekhov

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, the crucial regulator of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, lipid metabolism and inflammation, is involved in the development of atherosclerosis and further CVDs (cardiovascular diseases). This review discusses the general regulation and functions of VEGFs, their role in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis development and progression. These functions present the great potential of applying the VEGF family as a target in the treatment of atherosclerosis and related CVDs. In addition, we discuss several modern anti-atherosclerosis VEGFs-targeted experimental procedures, drugs and natural compounds, which could significantly improve the efficiency of atherosclerosis and related CVDs’ treatment.

Meng-Yuan Zhang ◽  
Lingpeng Zhu ◽  
Xinhua Zheng ◽  
Tian-Hua Xie ◽  
Wenjuan Wang ◽  

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important microvascular diseases of diabetes. Our previous research demonstrated that bile acid G-protein-coupled membrane receptor (TGR5), a novel cell membrane receptor of bile acid, ameliorates the vascular endothelial cell dysfunction in DR. However, the precise mechanism leading to this alteration remains unknown. Thus, the mechanism of TGR5 in the progress of DR should be urgently explored.Methods: In this study, we established high glucose (HG)-induced human retinal vascular endothelial cells (RMECs) and streptozotocin-induced DR rat in vitro and in vivo. The expression of TGR5 was interfered through the specific agonist or siRNA to study the effect of TGR5 on the function of endothelial cell in vitro. Western blot, immunofluorescence and fluorescent probes were used to explore how TGR5 regulated mitochondrial homeostasis and related molecular mechanism. The adeno-associated virus serotype 8-shTGR5 (AAV8-shTGR5) was performed to evaluate retinal dysfunction in vivo and further confirm the role of TGR5 in DR by HE staining, TUNEL staining, PAS staining and Evans Blue dye.Results: We found that TGR5 activation alleviated HG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis by improving mitochondrial homeostasis. Additionally, TGR5 signaling reduced mitochondrial fission by suppressing the Ca2+-PKCδ/Drp1 signaling and enhanced mitophagy through the upregulation of the PINK1/Parkin signaling pathway. Furthermore, our result indicated that Drp1 inhibited mitophagy by facilitating the hexokinase (HK) 2 separation from the mitochondria and HK2-PINK1/Parkin signaling. In vivo, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, including retinal vascular leakage, acellular capillaries and apoptosis, were poor in AAV8-shTGR5-treated group under DR, but this effect was reversed by pretreatment with the mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 or autophagy agonist Rapamycin.Conclusion: Overall, our findings indicated that TGR5 inhibited mitochondrial fission and enhanced mitophagy in RMECs by regulating the PKCδ/Drp1-HK2 signaling pathway. These results revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of TGR5 and suggested that activation of TGR5 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for DR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Souptik Basu ◽  
Indra N. Choudhury ◽  
Lynn Nazareth ◽  
Anu Chacko ◽  
Todd Shelper ◽  

AbstractPeripheral glial cell transplantation with Schwann cells (SCs) is a promising approach for treating spinal cord injury (SCI). However, improvements are needed and one avenue to enhance regenerative functional outcomes is to combine growth factors with cell transplantation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are neuroprotective, and a combination of these factors has improved outcomes in rat SCI models. Thus, transplantation of SCs combined with VEGF and PDGF may further improve regenerative outcomes. First, however, we must understand how the two factors modulate SCs. In this in vitro study, we show that an inflammatory environment decreased the rate of SC-mediated phagocytosis of myelin debris but the addition of VEGF and PDGF (alone and combined) improved phagocytosis. Cytokine expression by SCs in the inflammatory environment revealed that addition of PDGF led to significantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, but IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10), remained unaltered. Further, PDGF was able to decrease the expression of myelination associated gene Oct6 in the presence of inflammatory environment. Overall, these results suggest that the use of VEGF and/or PDGF combined with SC transplantation may be beneficial in SCI therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Xinyu Liao ◽  
Ruiying Zhong ◽  
Hong Zhang ◽  
Fuke Wang

Background. The development of tissue engineering provides a new method for the clinical treatment of bone defects, but the problems of slow formation and slow vascularization of tissue engineered bone have always existed. Studies have shown that the combined culture system of vascular endothelial cells and adipose stem cells is superior to single cell in repairing bone defects. With the excellent proliferation ability, secretion of synthetic collagen and a variety of regulatory factors and fibroblasts can differentiate into osteoblasts and have the potential to be excellent seed cells involved in tissue engineering bone construction. Objective. To investigate the effects of combined culture of fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and adipose stem cells on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells. Methods. The cells were divided into 4 groups: adipose stem cell group, adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell coculture group, adipose stem cell+fibroblast coculture group, and adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group. The morphological changes of the cells were observed under an inverted microscope. After 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days of coculture, the proliferation of adipose stem cells in each group was detected by a CCK-8 method and the growth curve was plotted. Adipose stem cells in each group were stained with alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase at days 7, 14, 21, and 28. At the third week of coculture, Western blot was used to detect the expression level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 of adipose stem cells in each group. Results and Conclusions. (1) After 14 days of culture, some cells in the adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group fused into clumps and distributed in nests, while the adipose stem cells in the adipose stem cell group had a single cell morphology and no cell clusters were observed. (2) The cell growth curves were basically the same in each group, and the absorbance value increased gradually. The absorbance value of the adipocyte+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group was the highest, followed by the adipocyte+fibroblast coculture group and then the adipocyte+fibroblast coculture group. (3) Alizarin red staining showed negative reaction in each group on the 7th day, and a small number of red positive cells gradually appeared in each group as time went on. On the 28th day, red positive cells were found in all groups, and most of them were in the coculture group of adipose stem cells+vascular endothelial cells+fibroblasts, showing red focal. The coculture group of adipose stem cells+vascular endothelial cells and adipose stem cells+fibroblasts was less, and the adipose stem cell group was the least. On day 28 of alkaline phosphatase staining, cells in each group had red positive particles, and the adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+fibroblast coculture group and adipose stem cell+fibroblast coculture group had the most, followed by the adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell coculture group and then the adipose stem cell group. (4) Bone morphogenetic protein 2 was expressed in all groups, especially in adipose stem cell+fibroblast coculture group and adipose stem cell+vascular endothelial cell+ fibroblast coculture group. (5) Fibroblast could promote adipose stem cell osteogenic differentiation better than vascular endothelial cells, but the proliferation effect was not as good as vascular endothelial cells. The coculture system of fibroblast combined with vascular endothelial cells and adipose stem cells promoted the proliferation of adipose stem cells and the rapid and efficient differentiation of adipose stem cells into osteoblasts.

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