drug release
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 ◽  
pp. 100702
J. Leganés ◽  
A.M. Rodríguez ◽  
M.A. Arranz ◽  
C.A. Castillo-Sarmiento ◽  
I. Ballesteros-Yáñez ◽  

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 210
Sooho Yeo ◽  
Il Yoon ◽  
Woo Kyoung Lee

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive and tumour-specific therapy. Photosensitizers (PSs) (essential ingredients in PDT) aggregate easily owing to their lipophilic properties. The aim of this study was to synthesise a PS (methyl pheophorbide a, MPa) and design a biocompatible lipid-based nanocarrier to improve its bioavailability and pharmacological effects. MPa-loaded nano-transfersomes were fabricated by sonication. The characteristics of synthesised PS and nano-transfersomes were assessed. The effects of PDT were evaluated by 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran assay and by measuring photo-cytotoxicity against HeLa and A549 cell lines. The mean particle size and zeta potential for nano-transfersomes ranged from 95.84 to 267.53 nm and −19.53 to −45.08 mV, respectively. Nano-transfersomes exhibited sustained drug release for 48 h in a physiological environment (as against burst release in an acidic environment), which enables its use as a pH-responsive drug release system in PDT with enhanced photodynamic activity and reduced side effects. The formulations showed light cytotoxicity, but no dark toxicity, which meant that light irradiation resulted in anti-cancer effects. Additionally, formulations with the smallest size exhibited photodynamic activity to a larger extent than those with the highest loading capacity or free MPa. These results suggest that our MPa-loaded nano-transfersome system is a promising anti-cancer strategy for PDT.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088532822110640
Shengtang Li ◽  
Xuewen Shi ◽  
Bo Xu ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Peng Li ◽  

Currently, the treatment of osteomyelitis poses a great challenge to clinical orthopedics. The use of biodegradable materials combined with antibiotics provides a completely new option for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In this study, vancomycin hydrochloride (VANCO) loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the in vitro drug release behaviors of the drug loaded microspheres were explored after coating with different concentrations of silk fibroin (SF). Drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, Scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrophilicity, in vitro drug release, and in vitro antibacterial activity were evaluated. The results showed that the drug loading of vancomycin loaded PLGA microspheres was (24.11 ±1.72)%, and the encapsulation efficiency was (48.21 ±3.44)%. The in vitro drug release indicated that the drug loaded microspheres showed an obvious initial burst release, and the drug loaded microspheres coated with SF could alleviate the initial burst release in varying degrees. It also can reduce the amount of cumulative drug release, and the effect of microspheres coated with 0.1% concentration of SF is the best. The time of in vitro drug release in different groups of drug loaded microspheres can be up to 28 days. The microspheres coated with (0.1%SF) or without (0%SF) SF showed a cumulative release of (82.50±3.51)% and (67.70±3.81)%,respectively. Therefore, the surface coating with SF of vancomycin loaded microspheres can alleviate the initial burst release, reduce the cumulative drug release, potentially prolong the drug action time, and improve the anti-infection effect.

2022 ◽  
pp. 18-25
WEI HU ◽  

Purpose. Study pore size effect and morphology of mesoporous silica on metoprolol tartrate release.Methodology. A sample of hollow mesoporous silicon dioxide with amino-functional groups containing 12.7 wt. % metoprolol tartrate has been investigated as potential carriers for the controlled release of active substance. Studies of the release profiles of metoprolol tartrate were performed under the following conditions: dissolution medium was buffer solution with a pH of 7.4 (phosphate buffer); sampling time: from 0.5 h before 18 h. The metoprolol concentration in the liquid phase was evaluated by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Persee TU-190, Beijing, China) by use of quartz cuvettes with an optical path length of 1 cm at a maximum wavelength of 274 nm.Findings. In this work we have studied mesoporous silica as possible carrier to controlled release of metoprolol tartrate, a drug used in the treatment of some diseases of the cardiovascular system. The material for research was a sample of hollow mesoporous silicon dioxide with amino-functional groups 200–400 nm in size and 20–30 nm in shell thickness. A calibrated curve to determine the amount of metoprolol was constructed by determining the absorption dependence of the concentration of metoprolol in the range from 10 to 300 ppm. The same drug concentration was obtained as calculated from the drug release test formula, which concludes that the release of metoprolol is controlled.Originality. The controlled release of a sample of hollow spheres of mesoporous silicon dioxide filled with metoprolol tartrate was studied, which was synthesized by the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, using a new technology, where hollow spheres of mesoporous silicon dioxide with amino groups were synthesized using CO2 gas bubbles as templates.Practical value. The metoprolol release amount could achieve a 50% release amounts within 1 hour and 90% within 5 hours, indicating that the synthesized mesoporous hollow sphere could achieve controlled drug release, and shows the potential of carriers with stimulus response and targeted therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Zhengyang Yang ◽  
Wei Deng ◽  
Xiao Zhang ◽  
Yongbo An ◽  
Yishan Liu ◽  

Digestive tumours, a common kind of malignancy worldwide, have recently led to the most tumour-related deaths. Angiogenesis, the process of forming novel blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is involved in various physiological and pathological processes in the body. Many studies suggest that abnormal angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of digestive tumours. Therefore, anti-angiogenic therapy is considered a promising target for improving therapeutic efficacy. Traditional strategies such as bevacizumab and regorafenib can target and block the activity of proangiogenic factors to treat digestive tumours. However, due to resistance and some limitations, such as poor pharmacokinetics, their efficacy is not always satisfactory. In recent years, nanotechnology-based anti-angiogenic therapies have emerged as a new way to treat digestive tumours. Compared with commonly used drugs, nanoparticles show great potential in tumour targeted delivery, controlled drug release, prolonged cycle time, and increased drug bioavailability. Therefore, anti-angiogenic nanoparticles may be an effective complementary therapy to treat digestive tumours. In this review, we outline the different mechanisms of angiogenesis, the effects of nanoparticles on angiogenesis, and their biomedical applications in various kinds of digestive tumours. In addition, the opportunities and challenges are briefly discussed.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Munir Ahmad Khan ◽  
Abul Kalam Azad ◽  
Muhammad Safdar ◽  
Asif Nawaz ◽  
Muhammad Akhlaq ◽  

This project aims to synthesize and characterize the pH-sensitive controlled release of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded hydrogels (5-FULH) by polymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinker with ammonium persulphate as an initiator. The formulation’s code is named according to acrylamide (A1, A2, A3), acrylic acid (B1, B2, B3) and glutaraldehyde (C1, C2, C3). The optimized formulations were exposed to various physicochemical tests, namely swelling, diffusion, porosity, sol gel analysis, and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). These 5-FULH were subjected to kinetic models for drug release data. The 5-FU were shown to be soluble in distilled water and phosphate buffer media at pH 7.4, and sparingly soluble in an acidic media at pH 1.2. The ATR-FTIR data confirmed that the 5-FU have no interaction with other ingredients. The lowest dynamic (0.98 ± 0.04% to 1.90 ± 0.03%; 1.65 ± 0.01% to 6.88 ± 0.03%) and equilibrium swelling (1.85 ± 0.01% to 6.68 ± 0.03%; 10.12 ± 0.02% to 27.89 ± 0.03%) of formulations was observed at pH 1.2, whereas the higher dynamic (4.33 ± 0.04% to 10.21 ± 0.01%) and equilibrium swelling (22.25 ± 0.03% to 55.48 ± 0.04%) was recorded at pH 7.4. These findings clearly indicated that the synthesized 5-FULH have potential swelling characteristics in pH 6.8 that will enhance the drug’s release in the same pH medium. The porosity values of formulated 5-FULH range from 34% to 62% with different weight ratios of AM, AA, and GA. The gel fractions data showed variations ranging from 74 ± 0.4% (A1) to 94 ± 0.2% (B3). However, formulation A1 reported the highest 24 ± 0.1% and B3 the lowest 09 ± 0.3% sol fractions rate among the formulations. Around 20% drug release from the 5-FULH was found at 1 h in an acidic media (pH1.2), whereas >65% of drug release (pH7.4) was observed at around 25 h. These findings concluded that GA crosslinked 5-FU loaded AM and AA based hydrogels would be a potential pH-sensitive oral controlled colon drug delivery carrier.


Objective: This study aims to Formulate Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDTs) of Tofacitinib Citrate with the increase in bioavailability and patient compliance. Methods: Mouth Dissolving Tablets (MDTs) of Tofacitinib Citrate were developed by full factorial design at 32levelsand prepared by direct compression method using super integrants like sodium starch glycolate, Ludiflash. The tablets were compressed into compacts on a 10 station tablet machine. The bulk drug was characterised by determining, MP, Solubility, pH and FTIR spectra. Results: The weight variation, hardness and diameter, thickness, friability, drug content, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution studies, and stability study, tablet thickness, weight variation and drug content post compression parameters remained consistent and reproducible. All the formulations showed, almost 100 percent of drug release within 75 min. Formulations F1, F2 and F3 were prepared with 5 mg of SSG and 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg Ludiflash which shows % release of drug in the order of F1<F2<F3. Formulations F4, F5 and F6 were prepared with 10 mg of SSG and 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg Ludiflash which shows % release of drug in the order of F4<F5<F6. Formulations F7, F8 and F9 were prepared with 15 mg of SSG and 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg Ludiflash which shows % release of drug in the order of F7<F8<F9. Conclusion: It is concluded that the amount of superdisintegrants decreases disintegration time of tablets, decreases wetting time, increases the cumulative % drug release causes better absorption.

David King ◽  
Christopher McCormick ◽  
Sean McGinty

AbstractDrug-filled implants (DFIs) have emerged as an innovative approach to control the delivery of drugs. These devices contain the drug within the structure of the implant itself and avoid the need to include additional drug carrier materials such as a polymers, which are often associated with inflammation and delayed healing/tissue regeneration at the implant site. One common feature of in vitro experiments to generate drug release profiles is stirring or agitation of the release medium. However, the influence of the resulting fluid flow on the rate of drug release from DFIs has yet to be quantified. In this paper we consider two DFIs, which although similar in shape and size, employ different strategies to control the release of drug: a porous pin with pores on the order of μm and a pin drilled with orifices of the order of mm. We develop a multiphysics mathematical model of drug release from these DFIs, subject to fluid flow induced through stirring and show that fluid flow greatly influences the drug release profile for the orifice pin, but that the porous pin drug release profile is relatively insensitive to flow. We demonstrate that drug release from the porous pin may adequately be described through a simplified radial 1D dissolution-diffusion model, while a 3D dissolution-advection-diffusion model is required to describe drug release from the orifice pin. A sensitivity analysis reveals that that the balance of reaction-advection-diffusion in terms of key nondimensional numbers governs the overall drug release. Our findings potentially have important implications in terms of devising the most relevant experimental protocol for quantifying drug release from DFIs.

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