Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 235-242
Varvara G. Nikonorova ◽  
Vladimir V. Chrishtop ◽  
Tatyana A. Rumyantseva

Relevance. Scars are multi-tissue structures that significantly reduce the quality of life of the young, able-bodied population. The most socially significant variants are represented by hypertrophic and keloid postoperative scars and scars after burns, atrophic scars after acne vulgaris and striae. Growth factors, which are also used for their treatment, play a significant role in their formation and progression. The aim of this work is to summarize data on the participation of growth factors (transforming growth factor beta-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor) in the formation of a hypertrophic or atrophic scar. Materials and Methods. The study of literary sources of scientometric scientific bases was carried out. Results and Discussion . The study showed that the duration of the scarring phases preceding it is of great importance in scar formation, their prolongation leads to chronic inflammation and the attachment of an autoimmune component, an increase in the number of myofibroblasts due to inhibition of apoptosis and an increase in the synthesis of intercellular substance and immature forms of collagen, as well as thinning of the epidermis over scar. Growth factors such as growth factor beta-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor are capable of shifting the balance of these two main pathways or towards proliferative processes, contributing to an increase in the number of blood vessels in the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the number of mast cells and total cellularity, as well as, in some cases, the synthesis of keloid - that is, the formation of a hypertrophic or keloid scar. On the contrary, the prevalence of inflammatory processes leads to a decrease in cellularity, a decrease in blood vessels and intercellular substance, as well as damage to elastin and collagen fibers, forming the phenotype of an atrophic scar or striae. Conclusion. Growth factors play a key role in scar formation, contributing to an increase in the number of blood vessels in the hemomicrocirculatory bed, the number of mast cells and total cellularity, as well as, in some cases, the synthesis of keloid - that is, the formation of a hypertrophic or keloid scar.

Nadège Ngo Ntjam ◽  
Denis Angoulvant ◽  
Theodora Bejan-Angoulvant

Piotr Kanclerz ◽  
Joel Hanhart ◽  
Raimo Tuuminen

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1024
Timothy Y. Y. Lai ◽  
Ricky Y. K. Lai

Previous studies based on clinical trial data have demonstrated that greater fluctuations in retinal thickness during the course of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is associated with poorer visual acuity outcomes. However, it was unclear whether similar findings would be observed in real-world clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the association between retinal thickness variability and visual outcomes in eyes receiving anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD using pro re nata treatment regimen. A total of 64 eyes which received intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy (bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept) for the treatment of nAMD were evaluated. Variability in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield thickness (CST) was calculated from the standard deviation (SD) values of all follow-up visits after three loading doses from month 3 to month 24. Eyes were divided into quartiles based on the OCT CST variability values and the mean best-corrected visual acuity values at 2 years were compared. At baseline, the mean ± SD logMAR visual acuity and CST were 0.59 ± 0.39 and 364 ± 113 µm, respectively. A significant correlation was found between CST variability and visual acuity at 2 years (Spearman’s ρ = 0.54, p < 0.0001), indicating that eyes with lower CST variability had better visual acuity at 2 years. Eyes with the least CST variability were associated with the highest mean visual acuity improvement at 2 years (quartile 1: +9.7 letters, quartile 2: +1.1 letters, quartile 3: −2.5 letters, quartile 4: −9.5 letters; p = 0.018). No significant difference in the number of anti-VEGF injections was found between the four CST variability quartile groups (p = 0.21). These findings showed that eyes undergoing anti-VEGF therapy for nAMD with more stable OCT CST variability during the follow-up period were associated with better visual outcomes. Clinicians should consider adopting treatment strategies to reduce CST variability during the treatment course for nAMD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (5) ◽  
pp. 636-641
V V Bazarnyi ◽  
L G Polushina ◽  
E A Sementsova ◽  
A Yu Maksimova ◽  
E N Svetlakova ◽  

Aim. To determine the clinical value of the growth factors concentration in the oral fluid in patients with mild chronic periodontitis. Methods. A prospective study including 30 patients with chronic periodontitis and 20 healthy volunteers was conducted. The diagnosis was made based on standard clinical and radiological criteria. Nerve growth factor (NGF-), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) were determined in oral fluid samples by using multiparametric fluorescence analysis with magnetic microspheres (xMAP technology, Luminex 200, USA). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric measures: median (Me) and interquartile range (Q1, Q3). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the clinical value of the parameters. Results. The chronic periodontitis was accompanied by an increase in the level of nerve growth factor- by 2.2 times, epidermal growth factor by 3 times, vascular endothelial growth factor A by 1.9 times (p 0.05) compared with the control. The platelet-derived growth factor BB concentration did not change. Using the ROC analysis, diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity of the studied parameters were determined: 89.1 and 91.1% for nerve growth factor , 92.3 and 96.1% for epidermal growth factor, 87.1 and 95.3% for vascular endothelial growth factor A, respectively. Conclusion. Salivary growth factors (nerve growth factor , epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor A) can be considered as potential biomarkers of mild chronic periodontitis.

Rocco Luigi Modugno ◽  
Ilaria Testi ◽  
Carlos Pavesio

AbstractSystemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents are the mainstay of therapy for non-infectious uveitis (NIU). However, the risks associated with systemic administration and the need of delivering an effective and safe anti-inflammatory treatment targeted to the site of inflammation have prompt the use of local therapy in the management of NIU. This review will analyse the different local treatment options available, including corticosteroids, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), methotrexate and the recent biologics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (F) ◽  
pp. 395-398
Erjan Fikri ◽  
Putri Chairani Eyanoer

BACKGROUND: Appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergencies that require surgery in children. The morbidity and mortality rate in appendicitis is greatly affected by rupture or leakage of the appendix. In establishing the diagnosis of appendicitis, several modalities are acknowledged, namely, pediatric appendicitis score and ultrasound. Pathologically, severity and complications of appendicitis occur related to good vascularization and tissue healing process through process of angiogenesis influenced by folic acid (FA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This is clinically important as currently non-operative and non-invasive therapies were developing in stratification of mild appendicitis. AIM: This study aimed to review the determination of appendicitis from FA and VEGF levels in animal model. METHODS: This study was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews. Articles were reviewed for relation of FA and VEGF in determining appendicitis in PubMed and Science Direct. Articles on experimental animal model published from 1990 to 2020 were included, while articles in English were excluded from the study. RESULTS: The articles we reviewed conduct an assessment of appendicitis by FA and VEGF level in animal model. Three articles were reviewed ranging from 1990 to 2020. One article presented a significant association of decreased level of FA in determining appendicitis while the other two mentioned trends of decreased level of FA and VEGF in appendicitis without statistically significance. CONCLUSION: Reduction of folate acid levels could be a critical prescient factor for the weight of muddled an appendicitis in animal model, however, there was a pattern demonstrating low estimation of VEGF as an indicator of appendicitis and convoluted appendix with no measurable note worthiness appeared.

2021 ◽  
Caleb Phillips ◽  
Ernesto A. B. F. Lima ◽  
Manasa Gadde ◽  
Angela M. Jarrett ◽  
Marissa Nichole Rylander ◽  

The goal of this study is to calibrate a multiscale model of tumor angiogenesis with time-resolved data to allow for systematic testing of mathematical predictions of vascular sprouting. The multi-scale model consists of an agent-based description of tumor and endothelial cell dynamics coupled to a continuum model of vascular endothelial growth factor concentration. First, we calibrate ordinary differential equation models to time-resolved protein expression data to estimate the rates of secretion and consumption of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial and tumor cells, respectively. These parameters are then input into the multiscale tumor angiogenesis model, and the remaining model parameters are then calibrated to time resolved confocal microscopy images obtained within a 3D vascularized microfluidic platform. The microfluidic platform mimics a functional blood vessel with a surrounding collagen matrix seeded with inflammatory breast cancer cells, which induce tumor angiogenesis. Once the multi-scale model is fully parameterized, we forecast the spatiotemporal distribution of vascular sprouts at future time points and directly compare the predictions to experimentally measured data. We assess the ability of our model to globally recapitulate angiogenic vasculature density, resulting in an average relative calibration error of 17.7% ± 6.3% and an average prediction error of 20.2% ± 4% and 21.7% ±3.6% using one and four calibrated parameters, respectively. We then assess the model's ability to predict local vessel morphology (individualized vessel structure as opposed to global vascular density), initialized with the first time point and calibrated with two intermediate time points. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study to integrate well-controlled, experimental data into a mechanism-based, multiscale, mathematical model of angiogenic sprouting to make specific, testable predictions.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Samar A Salem ◽  
Rania M Elhusseiny ◽  
Haitham M Saleh

Abstract Background Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides an option for patients recalcitrant to the currently approved therapies. As there are many methods for the preparation of PRP, the most suitable for AGA therapy is not yet clear. Aims To compare the efficacy between single and double spin PRP injections in treatment of FPHL and to assess the relationship between the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the PRP preparation and the treatment results obtained. Patients and Methods 15 female patients with FPHL were enrolled. Each patient was subjected to intradermal injection of PRP (prepared by double-spin method) into the right half of the scalp, in addition to intradermal injection of PRP (prepared by singlespin method) into the left half of the scalp in the form of three treatment sessions three weeks apart. Evaluation of treatment response was done through comparing patients' global photographs, assessment of patients' satisfaction and folliscopic assessment before and after treatment. Results Our results showed clinically significant improvement by comparing patients' photographs in most of the treated patients. In addition, folliscopy revealed significant change of the terminal hair density in the right half of the scalp following treatment sessions.VEGF concentration didn't differ significantly between double-spin and single-spin prepared PRP, also it didn't differ significantly upon calcium activation. Conclusions PRP is an effective treatment modality for FPHL. Double-spin prepared PRP could yield better results in the treatment of FPHL than the single-spin method. However, adding Calcium gluconate prior to PRP injection is of no benefit as it didn't significantly increase the release of VEGF. Yet, further studies discussing different PRP preparation protocols and involving a larger number of cases are needed to minimize statistical errors and to detect the most accurate PRP preparation method with the greatest yield of growth factors.

Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (39) ◽  
pp. e27326
Hyung Bin Hwang ◽  
Na Young Lee

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