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Nayana K. ◽  
Manjula K. T.

Purpose: Postmodernism is a general movement that developed in the late 20th century across the arts, philosophy, art, architecture, and criticism, marking a disappearance from modernism. The term has been more often used to describe a historical age which followed after modernity. Postmodernism is a period of uprising which refers to ups and downs in each walk of life and the different disciplines of knowledge be it literary work, philosophy, or science. Postmodern literature revokes some modern literary methods by transforming them. Historiographic Metafiction is a contradictory term that consists of two opposite categories such as history and metafiction. It is having dual representations because such writings reflect the reality as well as fictional position. An attempt is made by the Post-colonial Indian English writers to liberate Indian English literature from the foreign bondage. Historical events such as agitations, migration, movements, refugees, colonial hegemony; social-economic and cultural problems like encounter of the east-west, caste, and class became the concerns of the writers. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper is prepared by making a study of Primary source and accumulating secondary data from educational websites and written publications. This qualitative research is carried out by studying and interpreting the existing knowledge on the subject. The paper tries to analyze the historiographic metafictional features as depicted in The Shadow Lines by Amitav Ghosh. Findings/Result: After reviewing many articles, books and thesis it has been found that the paper aims to study Amitav Ghosh's notions like ‟ Nationhood and National distinctiveness in "The Shadow Lines” as a reminiscence novel, highlights a few historical happenings like the Second World War, the Swadeshi movement, and the Partition of India in 1947 and communal uprisings in Bangladesh and India. The ardent nationalism upheld by the protagonist that is the narrator’s grandmother is questioned and re-analysed. Ghosh searches for appropriateness of traditional identity such as nation and nationalism. Originality/Value: This paper makes a study of the major character Thamma with special reference to her concerns of Nationhood and Nationality. The identity of Thamma in the novel is given prominence being a woman she stands for her thoughts and identifies her as an individual who faced tragedy but still who had the courage to raise her voice till the end. Paper Type: Analytical Research paper.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 609
Jerzy Niemczyk ◽  
Aleksandra Sus ◽  
Edyta Bielińska-Dusza ◽  
Rafał Trzaska ◽  
Michał Organa

The article presents an innovative method of analyzing energy companies’ strategies, which aims to identify the strategic orientation of the entities subject to the research and, thus, to initially define the directions of strategic changes in the analyzed sector. The aim of the research, the results of which were used in this publication, was to identify the features of energy sector companies’ strategies in the European Union in the period of sector transformation caused by the new climate policy. The analysis area is the energy sector, i.e., the sector whose fundamental strategic goal is energy production. The research used a critical analysis of the subject literature and desk research method with the use of the researchers’ own analytical equipment, developed for the needs of this analysis. It was assumed in the conducted research that the primary source of information in the empirical study, the information subject to subsequent analysis, was the analysis of official documents (strategies, financial reports, etc.) posted on the websites of the surveyed corporations. The research results indicate the dominance of the resource-based approach in implementing strategic postulates of the surveyed companies. Nevertheless, the operational activity focuses on the implementation of innovative solutions towards decarbonization and climate neutrality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 183
Tourya Sagouti ◽  
Zineb Belabess ◽  
Naima Rhallabi ◽  
Essaid Ait Barka ◽  
Abdessalem Tahiri ◽  

Citrus stubborn was initially observed in California in 1915 and was later proven as a graft-transmissible disease in 1942. In the field, diseased citrus trees have compressed and stunted appearances, and yield poor-quality fruits with little market value. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-restricted pathogenic mollicute, which belongs to the Spiroplasmataceae family (Mollicutes). S. citri has the largest genome of any Mollicutes investigated, with a genome size of roughly 1780 Kbp. It is a helical, motile mollicute that lacks a cell wall and peptidoglycan. Several quick and sensitive molecular-based and immuno-enzymatic pathogen detection technologies are available. Infected weeds are the primary source of transmission to citrus, with only a minor percentage of transmission from infected citrus to citrus. Several phloem-feeding leafhopper species (Cicadellidae, Hemiptera) support the natural spread of S. citri in a persistent, propagative manner. S. citri-free buds are used in new orchard plantings and bud certification, and indexing initiatives have been launched. Further, a quarantine system for newly introduced types has been implemented to limit citrus stubborn disease (CSD). The present state of knowledge about CSD around the world is summarized in this overview, where recent advances in S. citri detection, characterization, control and eradication were highlighted to prevent or limit disease spread through the adoption of best practices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mallory Volz ◽  
Shady Elmasry ◽  
Alicia R. Jackson ◽  
Francesco Travascio

Lower back pain is a medical condition of epidemic proportion, and the degeneration of the intervertebral disc has been identified as a major contributor. The etiology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is multifactorial, depending on age, cell-mediated molecular degradation processes and genetics, which is accelerated by traumatic or gradual mechanical factors. The complexity of such intertwined biochemical and mechanical processes leading to degeneration makes it difficult to quantitatively identify cause–effect relationships through experiments. Computational modeling of the IVD is a powerful investigative tool since it offers the opportunity to vary, observe and isolate the effects of a wide range of phenomena involved in the degenerative process of discs. This review aims at discussing the main findings of finite element models of IVD pathophysiology with a special focus on the different factors contributing to physical changes typical of degenerative phenomena. Models presented are subdivided into those addressing role of nutritional supply, progressive biochemical alterations stemming from an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes, aging and those considering mechanical factors as the primary source that induces morphological change within the disc. Limitations of the current models, as well as opportunities for future computational modeling work are also discussed.

Ahmad Ismatullah ◽  
Zulkifli Zulkifli ◽  
Triansyah Fisa

This article discusses the concept of al-muwalah and the style of interpretation of al-Munir by Wahbah az-Zuhayli. The method used is a qualitative descriptive approach with an interdisciplinary interpretation study approach. The primary source for the discussion of this article is al-Munir's interpretation which was obtained from the library. The finding of this article is that az-Zuhayli's interpretation of the concept of al-muwalah shows a comprehensive style of interpretation with multi-disciplinary approaches. The interpretation of the verses on the concept of al-Muwalah by az-Zuhayli reflects that his interpretation is not only traditional, but also contains dynamic, tolerant, moderate, and humanist principles. The article also concludes that al-Munir's interpretation is included in the category of literary interpretation (al-adabi waal-ijtima'i), not the interpretation of socio-political movements (Adab-ijtima'i-siyasi-haraki).

Olabisi Ojo ◽  
Diana L. Williams ◽  
Linda B. Adams ◽  
Ramanuj Lahiri

Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is an obligate intracellular pathogen primarily residing within host macrophages and Schwann cells. Whole genome sequencing predicts a highly degraded genome with approximately one third of the coding capacity resulting in the loss of many catabolic pathways. Therefore, it can be assumed that M. leprae obtains many of the necessary metabolites for intracellular survival and growth from the host cells. In this study, global transcriptomic analyses were done on freshly harvested M. leprae growing in athymic mouse footpads for five months (MFP5) and compared to those held in axenic medium for 48 (ML48) and 96 (ML96) hours. Results show that all of the genes and pseudogenes were transcribed under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. 24% and 33% of gene transcript levels were significantly altered in ML48 and ML96 respectively, compared to MFP5. Approximately 45% (39/86) of lipid metabolism genes were significantly downregulated in ML96 compared to MFP5, majority of which are in the β-oxidation pathway. Cholesterol oxidase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and coenzyme F420-dependent oxidoreductase, were significantly upregulated in both ML48 and ML96 compared to MFP5. 30% of cell wall and cell processes functional category genes had altered gene transcription at 96hr compared to MFP5. 40% of 57 genes associated with mycobacterial virulence showed significantly altered transcript levels with 52% significantly downregulated in ML96, including most of the Pro-Glu/Pro-Pro-Glu genes. All 111 hypothetical protein genes with unknown function were expressed. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in M. leprae appears to be significantly downregulated under ex vivo conditions. This is the first study comparing M. leprae global gene expression during in vivo growth and ex vivo stationery phase in axenic medium confirming that during the growth phase in the footpads of experimentally infected mice, M. leprae is metabolically active and its primary source of energy production is probably lipids.

2022 ◽  
Pengxun Ren ◽  
Dehui Zhao ◽  
Zhankui Zeng ◽  
Xuefang Yan ◽  
Yue Zhao ◽  

Abstract Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the main food crops in the world and a primary source of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in the human body. The genetic mechanisms underlying related traits have been clarified, thereby providing a molecular theoretical foundation for the development of germplasm resources. In this study, 23,536 high-quality DArT markers were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) of grain Zn (GZn) and grain Fe (GFe) concentrations in recombinant inbred lines from Avocet/Chilero. A total of 17 QTLs located on chromosomes 1BL, 2BL, 3BL, 4AL, 4BS, 5AL, 5DL, 6AS, 6BS, 6DS, and 7AS accounted for 0.38–16.62% of the phenotypic variance. QGZn.haust-4AL, QGZn.haust-7AS.1, and QGFe.haust-6BS were detected on chromosomes 4AL, 6BS, and 7AS, accounting for 10.63–16.62% of the phenotypic variance. Four stable QTLs, QGZn.haust-4AL, QGFe.haust-1BL, QGFe.haust-4AL, and QGFe.haust-5DL were located on chromosomes 1BL, 4AL, and 5DL. Three pleiotropic effects locus for GZn and GFe concentrations were located on chromosomes 1BL, 4AL, and 5DL. Two high-throughput Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR markers were developed by closely linking single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosomes 4AL and 5DL, which were validated by a germplasm panel. Therefore, it is the most important that quantitative trait loci and KASP marker for grain zinc and iron concentrations were developed for utilizing in marker-assisted breeding and biofortification of wheat grain in breeding programs.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Christopher Long ◽  
Bridget Whittle

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the history and contents of an archival resource that is of interest to scholars of historical marketing. The Pirate Group Inc. archive, held by McMaster University Library’s William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections consists of over 27,000 sound recordings and 84 metres of textual records, documenting the work of Pirate, an award-winning Toronto-based advertising company founded in 1990. The comprehensiveness of the archives, which includes tens of thousands of advertising “spots”, gives researchers unprecedented access to the creative forces behind some of the most memorable advertisements produced in Canada. Design/methodology/approach This paper aims to answer the following questions: what is the Pirate Group Inc. and what is their documentary legacy? How can scholars of marketing history benefit from the records contained within the Pirate Group Inc. archive? How can researchers access the material at McMaster University Library’s William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections? Findings The authors assert that the Pirate Group Inc. archive may be of particular interest to scholars engaged in research on the following topics: Canadian nationalism in marketing campaigns, the advertising history of companies whose histories are under-studied due to a lack of archival resources and the recent history of radio and television political ad campaigns. Originality/value The paper contributes to historical research in marketing by asserting that the Pirate Group Inc. archive has continuing value for further research. The Pirate archive, which allows for unprecedented access into the study of Canadian advertising due to its comprehensiveness and its uniqueness among archival collections from the contemporary era, makes it a strong primary source for marketing historians.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
A.S. Dixit ◽  
R. Chetri ◽  
N.S. Singh ◽  

Migratory birds undergo physiological and behavioral changes to fuel their high energy demanding migratory flights. They increase their food intake as a part of the preparation for migration which results in increase in their body mass. Fat, carbohydrate and protein acquired from food are stored mainly in the adipose tissue (triglycerides), muscle and liver (glycogen) and body organs (protein) in migratory birds. These stored foods act as fuels to support birds’ migratory flights. Dietary carbohydrates and lipids not only provide energy for migration but also help in fattening as carbohydrates can be converted into fat and lipids which can be stored. Lipolysis of adipose-stored fats leads to the production of triglycerides, fatty acids and glycerol, which provide energy for migration. Fats are depleted after long migratory flights and replenished during refueling at the stopover sites. Being chemically reduced and hydrophobic in nature, fat releases more energy on oxidation as compared to carbohydrate and protein. Due to its high energy-yielding nature, the fat is the preferred fuel to support migration in birds. Migratory birds deposit fat and deplete it during the course of migration. Though, the stored fat acts as the primary source of energy, metabolism of body protein also provides energy for migratory flights. Uric acid in plasma is elevated when protein is catabolized. The metabolism of carbohydrate, stored as glycogen in liver and muscle in migratory birds, produces glucose which also fuels migration. Glucose in migratory birds is maintained at stable levels in plasma and it provides energy only for a flight of short period. Further, catabolism of carbohydrate and protein results in release of metabolic water which helps the migratory birds to maintain their water balance during long dehydrating flight conditions. Different levels of plasma metabolites in migratory birds act as significant indicators of their physiological and metabolic state. Plasma metabolites also give an idea of feeding, fasting and refueling during migration in birds. The available information is scanty and fragmented about how birds meet their migratory requirements and overcome the physiological challenges encountered during migration. The present review article, therefore, focuses on the biomolecules and their plasma biochemistry during migration in birds.

2022 ◽  
Diego Sasso Porto ◽  
Wasila Dahdul ◽  
Hilmar Lapp ◽  
James Balhoff ◽  
Todd Vision ◽  

Morphology remains a primary source of phylogenetic information for many groups of organisms, and the only one for most fossil taxa. Organismal anatomy is not a collection of randomly assembled and independent "parts", but instead a set of dependent and hierarchically nested entities resulting from ontogeny and phylogeny. How do we make sense of these dependent and at times redundant characters? One promising approach is using ontologies---structured controlled vocabularies that summarize knowledge about different properties of anatomical entities, including developmental and structural dependencies. Here we assess whether the proximity of ontology-annotated characters within an ontology predicts evolutionary patterns. To do so, we measure phylogenetic information across characters and evaluate if it is hierarchically structured by ontological knowledge---in much the same way as phylogeny structures across-species diversity. We implement an approach to evaluate the Bayesian phylogenetic information (BPI) content and phylogenetic dissonance among ontology-annotated anatomical data subsets. We applied this to datasets representing two disparate animal groups: bees (Hexapoda: Hymenoptera: Apoidea, 209 chars) and characiform fishes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi: Characiformes, 463 chars). For bees, we find that BPI is not substantially structured by anatomy since dissonance is often high among morphologically related anatomical entities. For fishes, we find substantial information for two clusters of anatomical entities instantiating concepts from the jaws and branchial arch bones, but among-subset information decreases and dissonance increases substantially moving to higher-level subsets in the ontology. We further applied our approach to addressing particular evolutionary hypotheses with an example of morphological evolution in miniature fishes. While we show that ontology does indeed structure phylogenetic information, additional relationships and processes, such as convergence, likely play a substantial role in explaining BPI and dissonance, and merit future investigation. Our work demonstrates how complex morphological datasets can be interrogated with ontologies by allowing one to access how information is spread hierarchically across anatomical concepts, how congruent this information is, and what sorts of processes may structure it: phylogeny, development, or convergence.

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