A model for firmness and low temperature-induced storage breakdown disorder of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit in supply chain

2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111789
S.G. Gwanpua ◽  
M. Zhao ◽  
A. Jabbar ◽  
J.E. Bronlund ◽  
A.R. East
2013 ◽  
Vol 440 ◽  
pp. 131-134
Rui Liu ◽  
Yao Li Zhang ◽  
Ya Juan Niu

Medicine, as a special product, is closely related with people's lives and health. Therefore, to ensure the quality and safety of the drug from the point of production to the point of final consumers is of great importance, especially the drugs which require cold storage and refrigerated transport. The quality stability of those drugs is greatly influenced by the fluctuations in temperature, so that a predetermined low temperature environment (usually 10 °C) in the supply chain is needed for the convenience of circulation and usage, in order to ensure quality and safety, to reduce loss and to prevent pollution. The transportation link, which is the most difficult one to control during the circulation of medicine, has long been the dead zone of logistics tracking [. Therefore, the temperature monitoring of drugs has gained more attention. The emergence of RFID technology has become a necessary impetus to solve this problem. RFID technology, which can store large amounts of drug information , is also a kind of data acquisition technology with the ability to update constantly and realize the real-time tracking of drugs.

2013 ◽  
Vol 85 (8) ◽  
pp. 1625-1631 ◽  
James H. Clark ◽  
Lucie A. Pfaltzgraff ◽  
Vitaliy L. Budarin ◽  
Andrew J. Hunt ◽  
Mark Gronnow ◽  

The availability of chemically rich food supply chain waste (FSCW) gives it considerable potential as a resource for the manufacture of chemicals including materials and fuels. By applying clean chemical technologies to the extraction and conversion of molecules from FSCW, we can aim to produce genuinely green and sustainable products to help meet the legislative and consumer-oriented demands of a sustainable society. Low-temperature microwave (MW) processing is a particularly powerful technology to achieve this aim and is shown to be effective for several different high-volume, geographically diverse biomass types.

P.P.K. Smith

Grains of pigeonite, a calcium-poor silicate mineral of the pyroxene group, from the Whin Sill dolerite have been ion-thinned and examined by TEM. The pigeonite is strongly zoned chemically from the composition Wo8En64FS28 in the core to Wo13En34FS53 at the rim. Two phase transformations have occurred during the cooling of this pigeonite:- exsolution of augite, a more calcic pyroxene, and inversion of the pigeonite from the high- temperature C face-centred form to the low-temperature primitive form, with the formation of antiphase boundaries (APB's). Different sequences of these exsolution and inversion reactions, together with different nucleation mechanisms of the augite, have created three distinct microstructures depending on the position in the grain.In the core of the grains small platelets of augite about 0.02μm thick have farmed parallel to the (001) plane (Fig. 1). These are thought to have exsolved by homogeneous nucleation. Subsequently the inversion of the pigeonite has led to the creation of APB's.

S. Edith Taylor ◽  
Patrick Echlin ◽  
May McKoon ◽  
Thomas L. Hayes

Low temperature x-ray microanalysis (LTXM) of solid biological materials has been documented for Lemna minor L. root tips. This discussion will be limited to a demonstration of LTXM for measuring relative elemental distributions of P,S,Cl and K species within whole cells of tobacco leaves.Mature Wisconsin-38 tobacco was grown in the greenhouse at the University of California, Berkeley and picked daily from the mid-stalk position (leaf #9). The tissue was excised from the right of the mid rib and rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen slush. It was then placed into an Amray biochamber and maintained at 103K. Fracture faces of the tissue were prepared and carbon-coated in the biochamber. The prepared sample was transferred from the biochamber to the Amray 1000A SEM equipped with a cold stage to maintain low temperatures at 103K. Analyses were performed using a tungsten source with accelerating voltages of 17.5 to 20 KV and beam currents from 1-2nA.

P. Echlin ◽  
M. McKoon ◽  
E.S. Taylor ◽  
C.E. Thomas ◽  
K.L. Maloney ◽  

Although sections of frozen salt solutions have been used as standards for x-ray microanalysis, such solutions are less useful when analysed in the bulk form. They are poor thermal and electrical conductors and severe phase separation occurs during the cooling process. Following a suggestion by Whitecross et al we have made up a series of salt solutions containing a small amount of graphite to improve the sample conductivity. In addition, we have incorporated a polymer to ensure the formation of microcrystalline ice and a consequent homogenity of salt dispersion within the frozen matrix. The mixtures have been used to standardize the analytical procedures applied to frozen hydrated bulk specimens based on the peak/background analytical method and to measure the absolute concentration of elements in developing roots.

Gert Ehrlich

The field ion microscope, devised by Erwin Muller in the 1950's, was the first instrument to depict the structure of surfaces in atomic detail. An FIM image of a (111) plane of tungsten (Fig.l) is typical of what can be done by this microscope: for this small plane, every atom, at a separation of 4.48Å from its neighbors in the plane, is revealed. The image of the plane is highly enlarged, as it is projected on a phosphor screen with a radius of curvature more than a million times that of the sample. Müller achieved the resolution necessary to reveal individual atoms by imaging with ions, accommodated to the object at a low temperature. The ions are created at the sample surface by ionization of an inert image gas (usually helium), present at a low pressure (< 1 mTorr). at fields on the order of 4V/Å.

William P. Wergin ◽  
Eric F. Erbe ◽  
Eugene L. Vigil

Investigators have long realized the potential advantages of using a low temperature (LT) stage to examine fresh, frozen specimens in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). However, long working distances (W.D.), thick sputter coatings and surface contamination have prevented LTSEM from achieving results comparable to those from TEM freeze etch. To improve results, we recently modified techniques that involve a Hitachi S570 SEM, an Emscope SP2000 Sputter Cryo System and a Denton freeze etch unit. Because investigators have frequently utilized the fractured E face of the plasmalemma of yeast, this tissue was selected as a standard for comparison in the present study.In place of a standard specimen holder, a modified rivet was used to achieve a shorter W.D. (1 to -2 mm) and to gain access to the upper detector. However, the additional height afforded by the rivet, precluded use of the standard shroud on the Emscope specimen transfer device. Consequently, the sample became heavily contaminated (Fig. 1). A removable shroud was devised and used to reduce contamination (Fig. 2), but the specimen lacked clean fractured edges. This result suggested that low vacuum sputter coating was also limiting resolution.

M. A. Kirk ◽  
M. C. Baker ◽  
B. J. Kestel ◽  
H. W. Weber

It is well known that a number of compound superconductors with the A15 structure undergo a martensite transformation when cooled to the superconducting state. Nb3Sn is one of those compounds that transforms, at least partially, from a cubic to tetragonal structure near 43 K. To our knowledge this transformation in Nb3Sn has not been studied by TEM. In fact, the only low temperature TEM study of an A15 material, V3Si, was performed by Goringe and Valdre over 20 years ago. They found the martensite structure in some foil areas at temperatures between 11 and 29 K, accompanied by faults that consisted of coherent twin boundaries on {110} planes. In pursuing our studies of irradiation defects in superconductors, we are the first to observe by TEM a similar martensite structure in Nb3Sn.Samples of Nb3Sn suitable for TEM studies have been produced by both a liquid solute diffusion reaction and by sputter deposition of thin films.

F. H. Louchet ◽  
L. P. Kubin

Experiments have been carried out on the 3 MeV electron microscope in Toulouse. The low temperature straining holder has been previously described Images given by an image intensifier are recorded on magnetic tape.The microtensile niobium samples are cut in a plane with the two operative slip directions [111] and lying in the foil plane. The tensile axis is near [011].Our results concern:- The transition temperature of niobium near 220 K: at this temperature and below an increasing difference appears between the mobilities of the screw and edge portions of dislocations loops. Source operation and interactions between screw dislocations of different slip system have been recorded.

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