low temperatures
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2022 ◽  
Vol 104 ◽  
pp. 236-243
Yuan-Yuan Tan ◽  
Zhong-Jun Chen ◽  
Ming-Yao Su ◽  
Gan Ding ◽  
Min-Qiang Jiang ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 123065
Han Wu ◽  
Weiren Cao ◽  
Haiying Li ◽  
Zhicheng Shi ◽  
Yantao Diao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 28-31
Shengrui Yao

The increased popularity of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) combined with the difficulty of grafting have limited supplies of grafted trees in the United States. From 2011 to 2020, grafting was practiced for cultivar amplification after importation and cultivar trials in frost-prone northern New Mexico. Grafting success was related to not only grafting techniques but also climate factors. Bark grafting, whip/tongue grafting, and cleft grafting were commonly used in nurseries. Low temperatures had a critical role in jujube grafting success in marginal regions and were more important than the grafting technique. If frost occurs before or near the leafing time, then grafting should be delayed until the rootstocks are determined to be healthy and alive. If frost occurs after grafting, then grafting failure and/or thin and small plant percentages increased. If only branchlets appear after grafting, then pinching branchlets could stimulate new shoot growth.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 652
Baoguo Wang ◽  
Rong Tu ◽  
Yinglong Wei ◽  
Haopeng Cai

Self-healing ceramics have been researched at high temperatures, but few have been considered at lower temperatures. In this study, SiC-Al2O3-B4C ceramic composite was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS). A Vickers indentation was introduced, and the cracks were healed between 600 °C and 800 °C in air. Cracks could be healed completely in air above 700 °C. The ceramic composite had the best healing performance at 700 °C for 30 min, recovering flexural strength of up to 94.2% of the original. Good crack-healing ability would make this composite highly useful as it could heal defects and flaws autonomously in practical applications. The healing mechanism was also proposed to be the result of the oxidation of B4C.

R.V. Melnikov ◽  
N.I. Moktitskaya

The development of the Far North goes hand in hand with the use of road construction equipment. The article addresses the main factors that affect the operation of this equipment in extremely cold climates. The effect of low temperatures on the operation of machines and individual units is examined. In particular, information is provided on the effect of low temperatures on operation of the hydraulic drive, power plants, and metal structures. The influence of the requirement to observe the methodological recommendations regarding the ergonomics and physiology of workers on increasing the cost of works with the use of road construction machinery has been noted.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 201
Tahereh Ashrostaghi ◽  
Sasan Aliniaeifard ◽  
Aida Shomali ◽  
Shiva Azizinia ◽  
Jahangir Abbasi Koohpalekani ◽  

Low temperatures are a substantial limitation in the geographic distribution of warm-season crops such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Tolerance to low temperatures varies among different plant species and genotypes when changes in environmental cues occur. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical events should be coordinated to form a physiological response and cope with low temperatures. We examined how light intensity influences the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis and some biochemical traits. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and polyphasic fluorescence transient to analyze cold stress damage by 4 °C. Photosynthetic Photon Flux Densities (PPFDs) of 0, 300, and 600 μmol m−2 s−1, in four accessions of cucumber, were investigated. The results show that the negative effects of cold stress are PPFD-dependent. The adverse effect of cold stress on the electron transport chain is more pronounced in plants exposed to 600 μmol m−2 s−1 than the control and dark-exposed plants, indicated by a disturbance in the electron transport chain and higher energy dissipation. Moreover, biochemical traits, including the H2O2 content, ascorbate peroxidase activity, electrolyte leakage, and water-soluble carbohydrate, increased under low temperature by increasing the PPFD. In contrast, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased under low temperature through PPFD elevation. Low temperature induced a H2O2 accumulation via suppressing ascorbate peroxidase activity in a PPFD-dependent manner. In conclusion, high PPFDs exacerbate the adverse effects of low temperature on the cucumber seedlings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (4) ◽  
D. L. Kunwar ◽  
S. R. Panday ◽  
Y. Deng ◽  
S. Ran ◽  
R. E. Baumbach ◽  

Fang Wang ◽  
Weixiang Lv

Abstract Migratory insects display diverse behavioral strategies in response to external environmental shifts, via energy allocation of migration-reproduction trade-offs. However, how migratory insects distribute energy between migration and reproduction as an adaptive strategy to confront temporary low temperatures remains unclear. Here, we used Mythimna separata, a migratory cereal crop pest, to explore the effects of low temperature on reproductive performance, behavior, and energy allocation. We found that the influence of low temperatures on reproduction was not absolutely negative, but instead depended on the intensity, duration, and age of exposure to low temperature. Exposure to 6°C for 24 h significantly accelerated the onset of oviposition and ovarian development, and increased the synchrony of egg-laying and lifetime fecundity in 1-day-old adults compared to the control, while female's flight capacity decreased significantly on the first and second day after moths were exposed to 6°C. Furthermore, the abdominal and total triglycerides levels of females decreased significantly from exposure to low temperature, but their thoracic triglyceride content was significantly higher than the control on the third and fourth day. These results indicated that low temperatures induced M. separata to reduce energy investment for the development of flight system. This resulted in the shifting of moths from being migrants to residents during the environmental sensitive period (first day post-emergence). This expands our understanding of the adaptive strategy employed by migratory insects to deal with low temperatures and aids in the management of this pest species in China.

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