cooling process
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Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Benedikt Engel ◽  
Mark Huth ◽  
Christopher Hyde

Polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys tend to have large grains within component areas where high loads are dominant during operation. Due to these large grains, caused by the manufacturing and cooling process, the orientation of each grain becomes highly important, since it influences the elastic and plastic behaviour of the material. With the usage of the open source codes NEPER and FEPX, polycrystalline models of Inconel 738 LC were generated and their elastic and crystal plasticity behaviour simulated in dependence of different orientation distributions under uniaxial loading. Orientation distributions close to the [100] direction showed the lowest Young’s moduli as well as the highest elastic strains before yielding, as expected. Orientations close to the [5¯89] direction, showed the lowest elastic strains and therefore first plastic deformation under strain loading due to the highest shear stress in the slip systems caused by the interaction of Young’s modulus and the Schmid factor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
D. M. Castro e Silva ◽  
N. S. Adiwardana

Abstract The loop is a material classically used in the laboratory for the purpose of plate streaking and handling biological materials. However, metal loops techniques might be time consuming, considering the amount of time spent to guarantee its cooling process through each inoculation. Furthermore, plastic loops may also represent environmental issues during its production and discard process and can also represent higher costs for the laboratory. Thus, in situations of limited resources, even the simplest materials can be restricted due to logistical and budgetary issues, especially in developing countries. Inspired by demands like these, facing an occasional shortage of supply of laboratory plastic handles, we hereby present a quality control for sterilization methods and cost-effectiveness studies towards the use of wooden sticks in a Latin American country and we discuss the possibility of the large-scale use of this technique.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00042
Aulia Puspita Anugra Yekti ◽  
Rifai Mustofa ◽  
Muhammad Lutfi

Artificial insemination using sexing semen is expected to produce calves with the desired sex. One sexing sperm method is the percoll density gradient centrifugation method. This study aimed to determine the changes and the relationship between motility and acrosome reaction after sexing process using percoll density gradient centrifugation. The material used was semen of ±5 years old Ongole crossbred bull with a bodyweight of ±700 kg as many as three bulls with mass motility 2+ and individual motility 70%. The method used was to compare fresh semen with sexed semen after the cooling process. Parameters measured were motility characters using CASA analysis, which included motility parameters, progressive motility, capacitation, and no acrosome reaction. Statistical analysis used paired T-test to distinguish among fresh semen, after sexing and cooling process. In comparison, regression and correlation were used to analyze the relationship of capacitation and hyperactivation sperm with no acrosomal reaction with motility and progressive motility. The results showed that motility and progressive motility decreased after the sexing and cooling process. Meanwhile, the acrosomal reaction, capacitation, and hyperactivity increased.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
pp. 254-259
Enrique Torres Tamayo ◽  
José W. Morales ◽  
Mauro D. Albarracín ◽  
Héctor L. Laurencio ◽  
Israel P. Pachacama ◽  

The parameters behavior that characterize the process was carried out through an experimental investigation to obtain the cooling temperature, heat transfer coefficients and the heat flow in mineral coolers. The values of water temperature, water flow and mineral temperature were recorded at the inlet and outlet of the cylindrical cooler. Experiments were carried out with five values of the mass flow, keeping the cylinder revolutions constant. The calculation procedure for the system was obtained, in the mineral coolers the heat transfer by conduction, convection and evaporation predominates as a function of the cooling zone. A reduction in temperature is shown with increasing length, the lowest temperature values were obtained for a mass flow of 8 kg/s. The mineral outlet temperature should not exceed 200 oC, therefore it is recommended to work with the mass flow less than 10 kg/s that guarantees the cooling process.

Ching-Chien Chang ◽  
Daniel B Shapiro ◽  
Zsolt Peter Nagy

Abstract Vitrification, is an ultra-rapid, manual cooling process that produces glass-like (ice crystal free) solidification. Water is prevented from forming intercellular and intracellular ice crystals during cooling as a result of oocyte dehydration and the use of highly concentrated cryoprotectant. Though oocytes can be cryopreserved without ice crystal formation through vitrification, it is still not clear whether the process of vitrification causes any negative impact (temperature change/chilling effect, osmotic stress, cryoprotectant toxicity, and/or phase transitions) on oocyte quality that translate to diminished embryo developmental potential or subsequent clinical outcomes. In this review, we attempt to assess the technique’s potential effects and the consequence of these effects on outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 025001
J E M Perea Martins

Abstract This work presents the design of an inexpensive electronic system to measure water temperature and generate an experimental data set used to verify the fitting between experimental and theoretical curves of a water-cooling process. The cooling constant is computed with three different theoretical methods to check their efficiency and this approach allows the association of theoretical and experimental aspects of physics, mathematics and electronic instrumentation, which can motivate interesting discussions in the classroom.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Waseem Amjad ◽  
Fatima Akram ◽  
Sidrah Rehman ◽  
Anjum Munir ◽  
Owais Manzoor

A solar based cold storage unit for the preservation of food products is an excellent way to reduce post-harvest losses at lower energy costs. Energy optimization is essential to improve the reliability of the system. In the case of cooling, a major factor to reduce energy consumption is the uniform distribution of air inside the cooling chamber to maintain the even temperature of stored products. For this, a detailed thermal analysis is required to analyse the cooling process for energy saving and optimum conditions. In the current study, an energy and exergy based thermal analysis of a solar assisted cold storage unit is presented. A parametric investigation and a proper understanding about the influence of thermodynamics on the cooling process were obtained. All the experimentally calculated parameters (energy utilized, energy utilization ratio, energy loss and exergy efficiency) were subjected to a model curve fitting using Sigmaplot-12 and a polynomial cubic model was found best fitted based on the values of coefficient of determination. Thermal analysis showed variations in the rate of energy utilization, energy utilization ratio, exergy losses and exergy efficiency in the range of 3–18 kJ/s, 0.37–0.80, 0.8–2.25 kJ/s and 40–60%, respectively. The average value of COP of the system was found to be 3.95.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Chennakesava Sai Pitchi ◽  
Amrita Priyadarshini ◽  
Suresh Kumar Reddy Narala

Florin-Bogdan MARIN ◽  
Mihaela MARIN

The objective of this experimental research is to identify solutions for an optimal cooling of the disks. The aerothermal brake cooling calculation is used to determine how the brake cooling process evolves. The techniques for simulating the dynamics of the CFD fluid allow us to simulate the cooling of the brakes in air current and then to compare the results obtained in the wind tunnel.

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