Comparison of vegetable production, resource-use efficiency and environmental performance of high-technology and conventional farming systems for urban agriculture in the tropical city of Singapore

2022 ◽  
Vol 807 ◽  
pp. 150621
Shuang Song ◽  
Yujun Hou ◽  
Rayson B.H. Lim ◽  
Leon Y.F. Gaw ◽  
Daniel R. Richards ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 68 (5) ◽  
pp. 442 ◽  
A. Sennhenn ◽  
D. M. G. Njarui ◽  
B. L. Maass ◽  
A. M. Whitbread

Short-season grain legumes play an important role in smallholder farming systems as source of food and to improve soil fertility through nitrogen fixation. However, it is not clearly understood how these diverse legumes contribute to the resilience of such systems in semi-arid environments. We describe the growth, development and resource-use efficiency (focusing on radiation, RUE) of three promising short-season grain legumes: common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and lablab (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet). Two field experiments were conducted during the short rains of 2012–13 and 2013–14 in Eastern Kenya. In the first experiment, the legumes were grown at three plant densities (low, medium, high); in the second experiment, they were subjected to three water regimes (rainfed, partly irrigated, fully irrigated). Phenological development was monitored and biomass accumulation, leaf area index and fractional radiation interception were measured repeatedly during growth; grain yield was measured at maturity. Harvest index and RUE were calculated from these data. Common bean had the shortest growing period (70 days), the most compact growth habit and relatively high RUE but limited grain yield (1000–1900 kg ha–1), thereby proving more suitable for cultivation in areas with restricted cropping windows or in intercropping systems. Cowpea had a longer growing period (90 days) and a spreading growth habit leading to high light interception and outstanding grain yields under optimal conditions (1400–3050 kg ha–1). Lablab showed stable RUE values (0.76–0.92 g MJ–1), was relatively unaffected by limited water availability and had a comparatively long growing period (100 days). Lablab grain yields of ~1200–2350 kg ha–1 were obtained across all water regimes, indicating a high potential to cushion climatic variability. Planting density strongly influenced the production success of cowpea and lablab, with high plant densities leading to vigorous growth habit with low podset establishment. Such information on temporal and spatial differences in growth, development and resource-use efficiency is highly valuable for crop-modelling applications and for designing more resilient farming systems with short-season grain legumes.

2020 ◽  
Vol 83 (1) ◽  
pp. 113-125
Nurudeen Afolabi Sofoluwe ◽  
Akeem Abiade Tijani

AbstractThe objective of this study is to analyse efficiency in resource use by cooperative producers with specialization in vegetable production and estimate the costs and return to such enterprises under cooperative conditions. Marginal physical product (MPP), marginal value product (MVP), and marginal factor costs (MFC) in addition to budgetary analysis were utilised to analyse the primary data collected through the questionnaire. The enterprise efficiency level is 0.06, the benefit-cost ratio is 1.06 while the expense structure ratio 0.37. The MVP results showed that all the resources used in production are under-utilized suggesting inefficiency of resource use by the cooperative producers. The result can be of advantage to producers if an appropriate understanding of cooperative principles is put into perspective in production-related decisions. Improvement of the level of utilization of input resources should be of interest to the government and related stakeholders.

2007 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 327-360 ◽  
Claude E. Boyd ◽  
Craig Tucker ◽  
Aaron Mcnevin ◽  
Katherine Bostick ◽  
Jason Clay

2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Giuseppina Pennisi ◽  
Francesco Orsini ◽  
Sonia Blasioli ◽  
Antonio Cellini ◽  
Andrea Crepaldi ◽  

Abstract LED lighting in indoor farming systems allows to modulate the spectrum to fit plant needs. Red (R) and blue (B) lights are often used, being highly active for photosynthesis. The effect of R and B spectral components on lettuce plant physiology and biochemistry and resource use efficiency were studied. Five red:blue (RB) ratios (0.5-1-2-3-4) supplied by LED and a fluorescent control (RB = 1) were tested in six experiments in controlled conditions (PPFD = 215 μmol m−2 s−1, daylength 16 h). LED lighting increased yield (1.6 folds) and energy use efficiency (2.8 folds) as compared with fluorescent lamps. Adoption of RB = 3 maximised yield (by 2 folds as compared with RB = 0.5), also increasing leaf chlorophyll and flavonoids concentrations and the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. As the red portion of the spectrum increased, photosystem II quantum efficiency decreased but transpiration decreased more rapidly, resulting in increased water use efficiency up to RB = 3 (75 g FW L−1 H2O). The transpiration decrease was accompanied by lower stomatal conductance, which was associated to lower stomatal density, despite an increased stomatal size. Both energy and land surface use efficiency were highest at RB ≥ 3. We hereby suggest a RB ratio of 3 for sustainable indoor lettuce cultivation.

2008 ◽  
Vol 146 (5) ◽  
pp. 493-505 ◽  
U. K. BEHERA ◽  
C. M. YATES ◽  

SUMMARYFarming systems research is a multi-disciplinary holistic approach to solve the problems of small farms. Small and marginal farmers are the core of the Indian rural economy constituting 0·80 of the total farming community but possessing only 0·36 of the total operational land. The declining trend of per capita land availability poses a serious challenge to the sustainability and profitability of farming. Under such conditions, it is appropriate to integrate land-based enterprises such as dairy, fishery, poultry, duckery, apiary, field and horticultural cropping within the farm, with the objective of generating adequate income and employment for these small and marginal farmers under a set of farm constraints and varying levels of resource availability and opportunity. The integration of different farm enterprises can be achieved with the help of a linear programming model. For the current review, integrated farming systems models were developed, by way of illustration, for the marginal, small, medium and large farms of eastern India using linear programming. Risk analyses were carried out for different levels of income and enterprise combinations. The fishery enterprise was shown to be less risk-prone whereas the crop enterprise involved greater risk. In general, the degree of risk increased with the increasing level of income. With increase in farm income and risk level, the resource use efficiency increased. Medium and large farms proved to be more profitable than small and marginal farms with higher level of resource use efficiency and return per Indian rupee (Rs) invested. Among the different enterprises of integrated farming systems, a chain of interaction and resource flow was observed. In order to make farming profitable and improve resource use efficiency at the farm level, the synergy among interacting components of farming systems should be exploited. In the process of technology generation, transfer and other developmental efforts at the farm level (contrary to the discipline and commodity-based approaches which have a tendency to be piecemeal and in isolation), it is desirable to place a whole-farm scenario before the farmers to enhance their farm income, thereby motivating them towards more efficient and sustainable farming.

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