growing period
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fengli Zou ◽  
Qingwu Hu ◽  
Haidong Li ◽  
Jie Lin ◽  
Yichuan Liu ◽  

Grassland is the vegetation type with the widest coverage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Under the influence of multiple factors, such as global climate change and human activities, grassland is undergoing temporal and spatially different disturbances and changes, and they have a significant impact on the grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Therefore, timely and dynamic monitoring of grassland disturbances and distinguishing the reasons for the changes are essential for ecological understanding and management. The purpose of this research is to propose a knowledge-based strategy to realize grassland dynamic distribution mapping and analysis of grassland disturbance changes in the region that are suitable for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The purpose of this study is to propose an analysis algorithm that uses first annual mapping and then establishes temporal disturbance rules, which is applicable to the integrated exploration of disturbance changes in highland-type grasslands. The characteristic indexes of greenness and disturbance indices in the growing period were constructed and integrated with deep neural network learning to dynamically map the grassland for many years. The overall accuracy of grassland mapping was 94.11% and that of Kappa was 0.845. The results show that the area of grassland increased by 11.18% from 2001 to 2017. Then, the grassland disturbance change analysis method is proposed in monitoring the grassland distribution range, and it is found that the area of grassland with significant disturbance change accounts for 10.86% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the disturbance changes are specifically divided into seven types. Among them, the type of degradation after disturbance mainly occurs in Tibet, whereas the main types of vegetation greenness increase in Qinghai and Gansu. At the same time, the study finds that climate change, altitude, and human grazing activities are the main factors affecting grassland disturbance changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and there are spatial differences.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Zhenwang Li ◽  
Zhengchao Qiu ◽  
Haixiao Ge ◽  
Changwen Du

Short episodes of low-temperature stress during reproductive stages can cause significant crop yield losses, but our understanding of the dynamics of extreme cold events and their impact on rice growth and yield in the past and present climate remains limited. In this study, by analyzing historical climate, phenology and yield component data, the spatial and temporal variability of cold stress during the rice heading and flowering stages and its impact on rice growth and yield in China was characterized. The results showed that cold stress was unevenly distributed throughout the study region, with the most severe events observed in the Yunnan Plateau with altitudes higher than 1800 m. With the increasing temperature, a significant decreasing trend in cold stress was observed across most of the three ecoregions after the 1970s. However, the phenological-shift effects with the prolonged growing period during the heading and flowering stages have slowed down the cold stress decreasing trend and led to an underestimation of the magnitude of cold stress events. Meanwhile, cold stress during heading and flowering will still be a potential threat to rice production. The cold stress-induced yield loss is related to both the intensification of extreme cold stress and the contribution of related components to yield in the three regions.

Seda Bice Ataklı ◽  
Sezer Şahin ◽  
Sabriye Belgüzar

One of the most important factors that increase soil fertility is the amount of soil organic matter. One of the ways to increase soil organic matter is the addition of organic fertilizers. Yemsoy soybean cultivar was used in the study, and pot study was carried out in 3 replications according to the randomized blocks experimental design. In the study, three different fertilizer doses (EC 0- 0.5- 1), three different grape pomace compost (0- 20-40 %) were applied to the peat perlite mixture, and mycorrhiza and bacteria inoculation to these environments. At the end of a 60-day growing period, the plants were harvested from the top of the pot, and measurements were made. In the study, there was an increase in the above-ground fresh and dry weights, root fresh, and root dry weights of soybean plants grown with increasing fertilizer rates. The addition of compost to the growing medium, the addition of mycorrhiza, and bacteria caused different results in the investigated properties. The increase in compost and plant nutrition doses was effective in increasing plant growth.

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  

Wheat yield production is largely attributed by weather parameters. Model developed by multiple linear, neural network and penalised regression techniques using weather data have the potential to provide reliable, timely and cost-effective prediction of wheat yield. Wheat yield data and weather parameter during crop growing period (46th to 15th SMW) for more than 30 years were collected for study area and model was developed using stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR), principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with SMLR, artificial neural network (ANN) alone and in combination with PCA, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net (ENET) techniques.  Analysis was carried out by fixing 70% of the data for calibration and remaining dataset for validation. On examining these models, LASSO and elastic net are performing excellent having nRMSE value less than 10 % for four out of five location and good for one location, because of prevention in over fitting and reducing regression coefficient by penalization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Shinya Iwasaki ◽  
Kenta Ikazaki ◽  
Ameri Bougma ◽  
Fujio Nagumo

Development of local P fertilizers using low-grade phosphate rock (PR) is expected to overcome the low-stagnated crop yield in Sub-Saharan Africa. Calcination and partial acidulation methods have been proposed to increase the phosphate (P) solubility of PRs. However, the effects of fertilization with calcinated PR (CPR) and partially acidulated PR (PAPR) on sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] and cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivation are poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a 2-year field experiment in Burkina Faso to identify the differences in sorghum and cowpea responses to CPR and PAPR application. The following eight treatments were applied with six replicates using a complete randomized block design: control without P fertilization, two types of CP (CPs), triple superphosphate (TSP) as a positive control for CPs, three types of PAPR with different degrees of acidulation (PAPRs), and single superphosphate (SSP) as a positive control for PAPRs. SSP mostly comprised of water-soluble P fraction (WP), TSP and PAPRs of WP and alkaline ammonium citrate-soluble P fraction (SP), and CPRs of SP and 2% citric acid-soluble P fraction (CP). Their solubility was in the order WP > SP > CP. The fertilization effects were evaluated by P use efficiency (PUE). In 2019, the biomass and P uptake of sorghum was decreased by the low available soil water at the early growth stage. On the contrary, cowpea survived the low available soil water because of its shorter growing period compared to sorghum. P fertilization significantly increased the grain yields. However, the effect size differed according to the crop and fertilizer types. The SP, along with WP, significantly contributed to the PUE and grain yield of sorghum, whereas only WP contributed to the PUE of cowpea. Therefore, CPs, mainly consisting of SP and CP, had a disadvantage compared to TSP, especially for cowpea. We thus concluded that PAPRs are effective for sorghum and would be effective for cowpea when the acidulation level is sufficiently high. We also conclude that the long growing period of sorghum is favorable for absorbing slow-release P, but is unfavorable for the variable rainfall often observed in this region.

Florent Gauvin ◽  
Vesta Tsao ◽  
Joost Vette ◽  
Henricus Jozef Hubertus Brouwers

This research aims to study mycelium-based composites (MBC) by assessing their performance as foam-like wall insulation material. Various substrates have been selected to get optimized performance of the composite. Results showed that a prolonged growing period arose a denser mycelium outer layer in MBC, which rendered better water resistance due to the hydrophobicity of mycelium. Thermal conductivity and mechanical properties are highly dependent on substrate choices than other parameters of MBC, which coincided with the literature. Additionally, influences of accelerated aging test and moisture buffer capacity of MBC were first studied in this research. The results indicated that MBC not only maintained good functional performance after the accelerated aging test (i.e. drying and wetting cycles) but also constituted good moisture buffer capacity. This means that MBC has key material essences to apply as internal wall insulation material and become one of the layers in vapor-permeable building envelope systems to passively regulate indoor relative humidity and thermal comfort.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Stephanos Fragkoulis ◽  
Chara Kourkouta ◽  
George Geladakis ◽  
Alice Printzi ◽  
Alexis Glaropoulos ◽  

Lordosis of the haemal part of the vertebral column is a frequent abnormality in reared fish. Haemal lordosis develops during the late larval and early juvenile life stages of fish, mainly due to the high swimming activity of the fish in the rearing tanks. In the present study, we have examined whether haemal lordosis recovers during the growth of European seabass. Furthermore, we aimed to develop simple morphometric indices (PrAn1 and PrAn2) that might link the severity of lordosis at the juvenile stage with fish morphological quality at harvesting. At 111 days post-hatching (dph, 53 ± 4 mm standard length, SL), 600 seabass juveniles with lordotic (L, 200 fish) or normal (N, 400 fish) external morphology were selected and introduced in a common tank. At 150 dph (75 ± 7 mm SL), 350 fish were randomly selected, pit-tagged and transferred to a sea cage for on-growing up to 502 dph (234 ± 16 mm SL). The morphological examination of the fish at 150 and 502 dph revealed that 60% (46 out of 77) of L juveniles turned into normal phenotype by the end of on-growing period. Interestingly, 56% of the fish with recovered external morphology (N-Rec) presented either a completely normal vertebral column (31%) or minor abnormalities of individual vertebrae (25%). Following the results of geometric morphometric analysis, the differences in the body shape between N-Rec and N fish were not statistically significant (p > 0.05, canonical variate analysis). The examined morphometric indices were effective in discriminating the normal fish from 58% (PrAn1) to 65% (PrAn2) of lordotic juveniles. Results are discussed with respect to the mechanism of lordosis recovery, and spotlights on their application for quality control and cull out of the abnormal fish in commercial hatcheries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (3) ◽  
pp. 261-264
H. P. DAS ◽  
A. N. KALE ◽  

Based on weekly data for 4 years (1986-1989) at Bellary, soil moisture balance for rabi sorghum has been worked out for both irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. These soil moisture values have been used to identify periods of water stress which the crop experienced. during the growth cycle. The extent of yield reduction due to the stress was then evaluated from the actual soil water content and total available water extent and discussed. The ratio of evapotranspiration to potential evapotranspiration and water requirement of the crop has also been worked out to assess the stress situation of the crop during its growing period. This ratio has been found to be related to moisture availability at the root zone.

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