Semi Arid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 59 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-226
R. P. SAMUI ◽  
M. P. S. PILLAI ◽  

Water requirement and water use efficiency of sorghum was studied at Akola, Parbhani, Rahuri and Coimbatore. The study enables to understand the consumptive water demand of sorghum and water use efficiency in relation to yield. The results can be used for efficient management of both rainfall and limited water resources available for sorghum production.   Seasonal Evapotranspiration (ET) losses were studied for non- irrigated kharif sorghum at Akola and Parbhani and for Rahuri and Coimbatore seasonal ET losses were studied for rabi sorghum for well distributed normal and deficit rainfall years. In the normal rainfall years ET losses were more compared to deficit rainfall years. However, water use efficiency was found higher during deficit rainfall years than normal rainfall years. The seasonal ET- yield relationship was found positively correlated but insignificant for Akola, Parbhani, Rahuri and significant for Coimbatore (5% level). At Akola and Parbhani optimum yields were observed for seasonal ET of around 486 mm and 470 mm respectively. At Coimbatore maximum yield was observed for seasonal ET of 416 mm whereas at Rahuri yield was maximum when ET loss was about 475 mm. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) ranged from 6.3 to 12.2 mm for kharif season and 5.5 to 10.1 mm for rabi sorghum. Crop coefficient Kc was found negligible during early growth stages and reached peak during flowering stage and declined subsequently during maturity to harvesting stage.   The study revealed that during deficit rainfall years life saving irrigation need to be applied for all stations        under consideration. If limited irrigation is available irrigations at vegetative stage (25-35 days after sowing) and at boot- flowering stage (55-65 days after sowing) be given. The boot stage is found to be the most critical stage and if only one irrigation is available, it may be given at this stage. Water stress at this stage is found to cause reduction in yield by 35 to 40%.

2021 ◽  

<p>In the urban area, surface runoff can be utilized effectively to improve groundwater table through rainwater harvesting. The main aims of this study were to:1) investigate the potential of the surface runoff to inject into Urmia aquifer and increase groundwater recharge of this aquifer using SWMM - MOFLOW Model, 2) to investigate the quality of the urban runoff for aquifer recharge, and 3) to investigate the feasibility and effeteness of the artificial recharge via injection wells in a semi-arid area. Urmia city with an area of 930 Km2 is located at the West of the Urmia Lake in the North-West of Iran. The study aquifer has a negative groundwater budget, while some of the sub basin in the study watershed is prone to flood in the falling season. In this study, based on the location of surcharged channels, the quantity of rechargeable surface runoff to inject into the aquifer was estimated via SWMM model. Calibrated MODFLOW model was applied to predict the potential effects of the injectable water runoff on the groundwater surface. Estimated runoff by SWMM model was used as the input of the MODFLOW model. The quantity of the heavy metals (Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Pb and Cu2+) TDS and pH were measured to control runoff quality. According to the results, 1.12 million cubic meters (MCM) per year of runoff can be injected to the aquifer via 9 designed injection wells. This amount is equivalent to the annual loss of the aquifer (about 20 centimeters per year) that can ensure the stability of the aquifer in the injection area.</p>

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 20118-20123
Skarma Nonzom ◽  
Geeta Sumbali

A filamentous fungus Paecilomyces formosus (Eurotiales, Ascomycota) was detected for the first time from the region while surveying fungal diversity of a cold arid high-altitude pass (4,000 msl) located in Kargil district (Ladakh), India. The fungal isolate was characterized morphologically with camera lucida drawings and microphotographs, and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences. P. formosus has not been reported from India, or from arid/semi-arid/cold regions before, thus this represents a new record of Indian hot/cold desert mycoflora that is psychrotrophic in contrast to the more common thermophilic fungi.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (13) ◽  
pp. 19937-19947
Vikram Delu ◽  
Dharambir Singh ◽  
Sumit Dookia ◽  
Priya ◽  

To evaluate food preferences and group activity patterns, a fragmented population of Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra was selected for observation in a semi-arid ecosystem of western Haryana. A field survey was conducted fortnightly, from dawn to dusk, between September 2019 and August 2020, covering every season. Scan sampling and quadrat methods were used to record data on group size and vegetation. Group sizes ranged from 3 to 72 individuals. Based on visual observation, blackbuck seasonally consumed 26 species belonging to 25 families with varied preferences, out of a total of 53 plant species documented from the study site. Some plant species with high medicinal and therapeutic values were preferred, including Artemisia scoparia, Cucumis callous, Ziziphus jujuba, and Ziziphus nummularia. Unlike most herbivores, Blackbuck also consumed the toxic and medicinally rich Calotropis procera. We suggest that zoos which house blackbuck include these preferred wild plant species in their diet. Observations on group activity were analyzed on hourly, monthly and seasonal bases, and converted into time percentages. Group foraging activity was at a maximum in the monsoon (62%) and minimum in winter (50%), followed by resting: maximum in winter (21%) and minimum (12%) in monsoon, largely influenced by food availability. Foraging/walking ratio was at a maximum (5.2) in monsoon and minimum (3.1) in winter, and was correlated with the number of group sightings (maximum in winter and minimum in monsoon) in nearby farmland, when the animals faced food scarcity in their natural habitat and fed on crops. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-70
Muhammad Suliman ◽  
Samiullah Samiullah ◽  
Muhammad Ali

Groundwater is a precious source of fresh water and a major component of the entire water supply. Both water quality and quantity could be satisfied by evaluating the groundwater potential sites (GWPS). This paper analyzes the ground-water potentials in a semi-arid region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It describes a standard methodology to identify and map GWPS using integrated Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) methods. Eight parameters including elevation, slope, drainage density, lineaments density, soil, geology, land use/land cover and rainfall were integrated to explore areas with groundwater holding capability. GWPS were delineated through subjective weights assigned after coupling various thematic layers using Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The modelled GWPS were cross-checked with tube wells data. The result indicates that the central part of the study area has good potential for groundwater reserves/exploitation, where the factors i.e. moderate to high drainage density, sedimentary sequence of alluvial plain, low elevation etc. discern the central portion of the study area as a suitable site for groundwater. This study suggests that the applied method proves to be very significant and reliable tool for timely assessment of quality assured evaluation of groundwater resources. This study could be a systematic guide for future investigations for water related explorations, especially in semi-arid environments.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2389
Safa Bouhouch ◽  
Manal Eshelli ◽  
Houda Ben Slama ◽  
Ali Chenari Bouket ◽  
Tomasz Oszako ◽  

Numerous Tunisian arid and semi-arid regions are subjected to soil salinity. Thus, they are known for halophytes plants cultivation, including date palms. Phoenix dactylifera L., cv. ‘Deglet Nour’, is a valuable Tunisian cultivar subjected to high salinity levels. In this way, our purpose is to evaluate the response of its roots to long period exposition to increasing salt concentrations. We started by studying the effects of 4 g/L, 8 g/L, 12 g/L, and 16 g/L NaCl on the parameters of germination (Growth rate—GR, Seed Mortality Rate—SLM, Germination Mean Time—GMT, and Germination Speed—GS) of date palm seeds for a 2-month period. We found that 4 g/L NaCl did not affect the seeds germination, and, hereinafter, the parameters of germination and the radicle length decreased with the increase of NaCl concentrations and experiment time. Then, we demonstrated a high antioxidative enzymes CAT and SOD production in case of salt stress augmentation. Lastly, a metabolomic approach was carried out by LC-HRMS, followed by an untargeted and targeted analysis using the XCMS online and MZmine tools, respectively. The roots chemical composition was compared using PCA. We identified 25 secondary metabolites, divided into 3 categories. Metabolites known for their role in salt stress alleviation include δ-tocotrienol, metabolites identified in salt stress for the first time, and other unknown metabolites.

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