agricultural policy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Author(s):  
Graciella Corcioli ◽  
Gabriel da Silva Medina ◽  
Cristiano Alencar Arrais

Currently there is controversy about the effect of direct foreign investment in the Brazilian agricultural sector, mainly due to the impact it has on small farmers, land use, the environment, and food security. In this context, Brazil finds itself in an even more delicate situation, since in order to remain a bulwark of the economy, Brazilian agribusiness depends heavily on public policies that directly impact its treasury. This suggests there is an indirect transfer of public resources to transnational companies involved in agribusiness production chains. This paper assesses the allocation of agricultural credits in Brazil and the market share held by Brazilian groups, vis-à-vis multinational corporations in the agribusiness supply chains. The study was carried out analyzing the three largest supply chains established in the country: soybean, corn, and cattle. Results reveal that 75% of the operating credit (crédito de custeio), which represents 60% of the total government credit in Brazil, goes directly to soybean, corn, and cattle farmers. Most of this subsidized credit budget goes to the soybean farmers, which are mostly encompassed by large farmers. Results also reveal that 76.1% of the soybean supply chain in Brazil is controlled by foreign multinational corporations. These findings suggest that resources invested in large farmers that take part in supply chains controlled by multinational foreign groups end up indirectly financing foreign companies to the detriment of local smallholder farmers and domestic agribusiness. This highlights the need for restructuring Brazilian agricultural policy in favor of family farmers and domestic agribusiness.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdelghani Chakhchar ◽  
Imane Ben Salah ◽  
Youssef El Kharrassi ◽  
Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf ◽  
Cherkaoui El Modafar ◽  
...  

The argan tree, Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, is a horticultural forestry species characterized by its endemicity and adaptation to arid and semi-arid zones in the southwest of Morocco. Despite its limited geographical distribution, argan tree presents large genetic diversity, suggesting that improvement of argan is possible. This species plays important ecological, and socioeconomic roles in the sustainable development of the country. The integration of arganiculture into Moroccan agricultural policy has been implemented through a sector strategy, which is fully aligned with the conservation and regeneration of argan forest. A. spinosa is suitable for incorporation into different agroforestry productive systems under agro-fruit-forest model and its domestication will provide a powerful means of socio-economic and environmental management. Here, we provide an overview of the argan tree literature and highlight the specific aspects of argan stands, as agro-forest systems, with the aim of developing an adequate strategy of conservation and domestication of this species. We introduce promising programs and projects for argan plantations and arganiculture, which have been adopted to relieve anthropogenic pressure on the natural argan forest.


2022 ◽  
pp. 121-131
Author(s):  
János Fritz

Purpose of the study. The study aims to present the most important findings of the analysis of the 1935 agricultural census in Somogy county, referring to the local solutions to the economic crisis. The situation in Somogy was unique since the county’s weight, dominated by large estates, increased in the Hungarian agricultural policy as the result of the Treaty of Trianon. Moreover, as leaders of national advocacy organizations, local agricultural leaders became key shapers of agricultural policy in these decades. Thus, an important question is to what extent the census’ data examined reflected the dominant role of these large landowners. Applied method. The study analyses statistical data and uses the method of historical comparison. Specifically, the 1935 Somogy County census data were analyzed and compared with the census data of 1895. The results thus obtained were compared with Somogy related conclusions of Kiss Albert’s work. Outcomes. One of the main objectives of the agricultural census carried out at the same time as the surveys of other countries was to test the impact of land reform that had recently been completed. On the other hand, the census was at some level part of the crisis management mechanism of the time, where intensification was the only way out of the agricultural crisis. Although this county was mainy dominated by large estates in the country, this is true even if we know from the analysis that by 1935 the proportion of large estates had decreased compared to the data of the 1895 survey. However, this decrease was not so much due to land reform, but rather to parcels and the increasing number of small leases. Somogy was in the middle in terms of intensification of agriculture, based on the national ranking. Although the division of labour and cooperation between large and small enterprises was becoming more and more common here, at that time, contrary to economic considerations, it was not yet possible completely get rid off the endevour of self-sufficiency on farms.


2021 ◽  
pp. 349-366
Author(s):  
Roland Norer

In the course of its development, starting with the organisation of agricultural markets, the Common Agricultural Policy has been confronted with many different, also non-agricultural problems. It had to respond to the requirements of environmental protection, structural and social policy, animal welfare, energy policy or climate protection. Nowadays, there are three different methods by which the relationship between agricultural law and non-agricultural legal issues is legally shaped: separation, connection and integration.


2021 ◽  
pp. 331-348
Author(s):  
José Martínez

Agricultural law combines two opposing directions of development of law in general. One is connected with the local or regional element and indeed, like no other discipline, is linked to a specific region, culture, tradition and linguistic specificity, being a consequence of the specific nature of agricultural law. On the other hand, at the level of the European Union it is characterised by the greatest degree of integration. The Common Agricultural Policy has made agricultural law locally and regionally rooted but, at the same time, it has created a specific technical language of European agricultural law. Therefore, conducting a comparative legal research into the field of agricultural law faces a particular challenge as it requires combining both local and regional linguistic specificities with the European technical language of agricultural law. This relativism of the technical language of agricultural law does not, however, stand in the way of legal comparativism. However, apart from the linguistic knowledge, it requires the researcher to possess thorough cultural, social and economic knowledge of another country. Professor Budzinowski, unlike many other scholars, embodies these skills in his comparative legal research.


Author(s):  
Marek Wigier ◽  
Marian Podstawka

Agricultural policy is an attempt to put into practice the laws of economic theory, in order to achieve goals defined by the State. This research, carried out on a sample of four groups of Polish farms, contributes to the question of how to improve short-term economic policy in order to stimulate market mechanisms for the long-term development of the sector. Using data from the Polish FADN for 2008-2019, the authors of the study apply the modified PSM method to determine the economic effects of changes taking place on farms. The research indicates that effective investments are the source of long-term development and economic success. At the same time, it shows that economic entities, by optimizing their microeconomic objective function, adjust investments to the objectives of public aid, which reduces the effectiveness of the use of financial resources.


Author(s):  
Solomon Pavliashvili ◽  
David Gubeladze

The maximum use of the potential of Georgia's agriculture and the targeted use of natural resources is vital for the development of the sectoral economy. The main guarantee of achieving a positive result for the country is the implementation of a clearly defined, effective agricultural policy aimed at competitive production, assistance in attracting financial resources, and encouragement of agricultural activities, conducting agrotechnical measures during the growing season of agricultural crops and determining the norms and terms of irrigation.


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