The Journal of Agricultural Science
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Published By Cambridge University Press

1469-5146, 0021-8596

L. A. Godoi ◽  
B. C. Silva ◽  
G. A. P. Souza ◽  
B. C. Lage ◽  
D. Zanetti ◽  

Abstract This study aims to determine the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) content of early-weaned calves; and the influence of flint maize processing methods on intake, total tract nutrient digestibilities and performance of Nellore heifer calves. Fifteen early-weaned Nellore female calves (4 ± 0.5 months; 108 ± 13.1 kg) were used. In phase 1, animals were fed one of the following diets for 112 days: 130, 145 or 160 g CP/kg dry matter (DM). In phase 2, animals received one of the two diets for 84 days: 0.60 dry ground maize grain, 0.30 whole-plant maize silage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement or 0.90 snaplage plus 0.10 mineral-protein supplement. In phase 1, intake and digestibility of dietary components were not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary CP content. Daily total urinary nitrogen (N) and urinary urea N increased (P < 0.05) in response to increasing dietary CP content. Animal performance was not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary CP content. In phase 2, maize processing methods did not affect (P > 0.05) intake and digestibility of dietary components as well as animal performance, carcase characteristics and carcase composition. Therefore, based on the current experimental condition, we conclude that dietary CP concentrations of 130 g/kg DM can be indicated for early-weaned Nellore calves. However, more studies are recommended to validate this result and to evaluate concentrations below 130 g CP/kg DM for early-weaned Nellore calves. Moreover, snaplage could be used as an exclusive fibre and energy source for finishing cattle in feedlot.

P. Papan ◽  
W. Chueakhunthod ◽  
W. Jinagool ◽  
A. Tharapreuksapong ◽  
A. Masari ◽  

Abstract The development of resistant mungbean varieties is one of the most efficient strategies to control major diseases such as Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and powdery mildew (PM). The objectives of this study were to pyramid a CLS resistance gene and two PM resistance genes from the donor parent D2 into a susceptible variety KING through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) and to evaluate their agronomic traits and disease resistance under field conditions. Five markers linked to the resistance genes were used for foreground selection, while two marker sets [Set A containing 15 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) and expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR) markers and Set B containing 34 polymorphic inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) loci] were also used for background selection. Two pyramided backcross (BC) lines, namely H3 and H4, were homozygous at all five marker loci when confirmed in BC4F4 and BC4F5 generations. Their recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery ranged from 96.4 to 100.0%, depending on the marker sets. During field evaluation, a moderate to high level of CLS and PM resistance was observed in both BC lines compared to the susceptible recurrent parent KING. One of these BC lines (H3) had all agronomic traits similar or superior to the recurrent parent KING at all environments, and had a higher yield than KING (18.0–32.0%) under CLS and PM outbreaks. This line can be developed into a new resistant mungbean variety in Thailand in the future. These results substantiate the usefulness of MABC for transferring multiple resistance genes into an elite variety.

K. Ramesh ◽  
S. Vijaya Kumar ◽  
P. K. Upadhyay ◽  
B. S. Chauhan

Abstract Weeds are a major biotic constraint to the production of crops. Studies on the critical period of weed control (CPWC) consider the yield loss due to the presence of all weeds present in the crop cycle. The CPWC is the time interval between the critical timing of weed removal (CTWR) and the critical weed-free period (CWFP), and the weed presence before and after the extremes of CTWR and CWFP may not significantly reduce crop yield. The crop yield is taken into consideration and weed density or biomass of individual weeds (annual or perennial) is not so important while calculating the CPWC. Only weed density or biomass is considered for calculating weed control efficiency of a particular management practice for which the weed seed bank is also a criterion. However, weed biomass is the outcome after competition experienced by each weed species with the fellow crop and the weeds. Consequently, the weed pressure in the subsequent season will be the cumulative effect of the preceding season too, which is unaccounted for in CPWC. It is argued that in organic farming or low-input farming systems, where herbicides are not used, the concept of CPWC can be misleading and should be avoided. It is concluded that CTWR is more meaningful than the CPWC.

A. Limon-Ortega ◽  
A. Baez-Perez

Abstract Environmental conditions contribute to a large percentage of wheat yield variability. This phenomenon is particularly true in rainfed environments and non-responsive soils to N. However, the effect of P application on wheat is unknown in the absence of N fertilizer application. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2019 in permanent beds established in 2005. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design and consisted of superimposing three P treatments (foliar, banded and broadcast application) plus a check (0P) within each one of four preceding N treatments (applied from 2005 to 2009). Foliar P generally showed a greater response than granular P treatments even though the soil tests high P (>30 mg/kg). Precipitation estimated for two different growth intervals explained through regression procedures the Years' effect. Seasonal precipitation (224–407 mm) explained variation of relative yield, N harvest index (NHI) and P agronomic efficiency (AE). Reproductive stage precipitation (48–210 mm) explained soil N supply. In dry years, foliar P application improved predicted relative yield 14% and AE 155 kg grain/kg P compared to granular P treatments. Similarly, soil N supply increased 15 kg/ha in dry moisture conditions during the reproductive stage. The NHI consistently improved over the crop seasons. This improvement was relatively larger for 0 kg N/ha. On average, NHI increased from about 0.57 to 0.72%. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) readings at the booting growth stage were negatively associated with NHI. Foliar P in this non-responsive soil to N showed the potential to replace granular P sources. However, the omission of granular P needs to be further studied to estimate the long-term effect on the soil P test.

R. E. Viol ◽  
P. M. Peche ◽  
D. H. Farias ◽  
L. V. Vilas Boas ◽  
P. N. Curi ◽  

Abstract Peach trees initiate flowering and then dense budding when the temperatures in winter are steadily low. When temperatures during the winter are high or when the chilling accumulation needs of the cultivar are not met, it is necessary to apply chemicals that stimulate flowering and budding in a uniform manner. This study aimed to evaluate alternative products for breaking the dormancy of ‘Kampai’ peach trees in a subtropical region. The experiment was conducted with ‘Kampai’ peach trees in the 2018, 2019 and 2020 production with the following treatments: (1) negative control composed only of water (control); (2) positive control composed of hydrogen cyanamide at a dose of 1.5% (commercial product Dormex®) plus 4.5% mineral oil; (3) Erger G® organomineral fertilizer supplemented with calcium nitrate at a dose of 3%; (4) potassium nitrate at a dose of 5%; and (5) copper sulphate at a dose of 0.3%. We evaluated affected budding capacity, flowering, the production cycle, peach production, the quality of peach trees and the enzymatic activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase. Hydrogen cyanamide and the organomineral fertilizer Erger G® promoted earlier flowering and an earlier production cycle. On the other hand, hydrogen cyanamide and copper sulphate stimulated flower opening and peach production. The chemicals used decreased catalase activity (24 h after application) and increased guaiacol peroxidase activity (6 h after application). The application of copper sulphate may be an option to break the dormancy of peach trees in the subtropics.

D. M. Pereira ◽  
E. M. Santos ◽  
J. S. Oliveira ◽  
F. N. S. Santos ◽  
R. C. Lopes ◽  

Abstract The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of cactus pear as a moistening additive on fermentative and microbiological characteristics, aerobic stability (AS), chemical composition and in situ rumen degradability of corn grain silage at different opening times. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme with four levels of dry matter (DM) (50; 60; 70 and 80% of DM) and three opening times (30; 60 and 120 days after ensiling), with four replications. There was an effect of interaction (P < 0.05) between the DM levels and opening times on silage yeast population, effluent losses, gas losses, dry matter recovery (DMR), AS of the silage and on lactic acid bacteria, mould and yeast populations after AS trial. The 60% DM level presented DMR values above 930 g/kg of DM. However, the lowest AS time (96.52 h) was observed in silages with 60% DM at 60 days after ensiling, although all silages have shown high AS. The DM in situ degradability of the ensiled mass increased after the ensiling process at all DM levels and opening times, with the 60% DM content showing the best result. When using cactus pear as a corn grain moistening additive, the 60% DM level is recommended when the opening time is up 120 days.

F. C. Meirelles ◽  
A. G. Cavalcante ◽  
A. R. Gonzaga ◽  
V. A. Filla ◽  
R. Z. Roms ◽  

Abstract The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of intercropping rice with green manures, as well as the impact of the dry biomass yield of these intercropping systems on common bean in succession, evaluating the agronomic and qualitative performance of grains from both crops. The experiment was conducted in Southeastern Brazil in the years 2018 and 2019, with succession of rice (spring/summer) and common bean (autumn/winter). The treatments were composed of cropping systems with rice as a sole crop and intercropped with forage peanut, calopo, Crotalaria breviflora, Crotalaria spectabilis, stylo, jack bean and dwarf pigeon pea. No intercropping increased the system's yield compared to sole-crop rice, but intercropping of rice with forage peanut and stylo promoted grain yield and quality similar to those of sole-crop rice. Intercropping with C. breviflora affected the agronomic and qualitative performance of rice. Common bean yield after rice intercropped with dwarf pigeon pea, C. spectabilis and C. breviflora was similar in yield after sole-crop rice, while the other intercrops reduced common bean yield. Common bean grain quality was not affected by the cultivation of rice as sole crop and intercropped with green manures. Although none of the intercropping systems increased yield compared to sole-crop rice (control), it can be concluded that the intercropping of upland rice is viable depending on the green manure species, allowing greater biomass production per area that can help long-term soil conservation and increase the system's yield.

E. C. Cataldo ◽  
L. S. Salvi ◽  
F. P. Paoli ◽  
M. F. Fucile ◽  
G. M. Masciandaro ◽  

Abstract In the Mediterranea area, major effects of climate change are a modification in rainfall patterns, an increase in temperature with an intensify in tropical nights, and an increase in incoming radiations, especially UV-Bs. Despite the various adaptation strategies, grapevines are sensitive to altered climatic conditions. This paper aims to assess the benefits of applying a new sustainable product to the soil that can implement farmers’ resources to adapt to this changing situation. Zeowine was realized by combining the properties of zeolite, which has excellent potential in many sectors such as in agriculture, with the organic substance of a compost obtained on a company scale from the reuse of waste processing grapes, pomace and stalks. The effects of two different soil management (Z – Zeowine, 30 t/ha dose and C – Compost, 20 t/ha dose) on vine physiology and berry compositions in Sanforte grapevines (new plantation) were studied during the 2019–2020–2021 growing seasons in the San Miniato area, Italy. The following physiological parameters of grapevines were measured: leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature, stem water potential and chlorophyll fluorescence. The results showed that Z increased single leaf photosynthesis, reduced leaf temperature and water stress. In addition, phenolic and technological parameters were studied. The Z-treated vines had higher sugar content and total and extractable anthocyanin content as well as berry weight. These results suggested that the application of zeolites added to compost in the vineyard to the soil can be a valid tool to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Z. F. Huang ◽  
L. Y. Hou ◽  
J. Xue ◽  
K. R. Wang ◽  
R. Z. Xie ◽  

Abstract The extent of the reduction of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel moisture content through drying is closely related to field temperature (or accumulated temperature; AT) following maturation. In 2017 and 2018, we selected eight maize hybrids that are widely planted in Northeastern China to construct kernel drying prediction models for each hybrid based on kernel drying dynamics. In the traditional harvest scenario using the optimal sowing date (OSD), maize kernels underwent drying from 4th September to 5th October, with variation coefficients of 1.0–1.9. However, with a latest sowing date (LSD), drying occurred from 14th September to 31st October, with variation coefficients of 1.3–3.0. In the changed harvest scenario, the drying time of maize sown on the OSD condition was from 12th September to 9th November with variation coefficients of 1.3–3.0, while maize sown on the LSD had drying dates of 26th September to 28th October with variation coefficients of 1.5–3.6. In the future harvest scenario, the Fengken 139 (FK139) and Jingnongke 728 (JNK728) hybrids finished drying on 20th October and 8th November, respectively, when sown on the OSD and had variation coefficients of 2.7–2.8. Therefore, the maize kernel drying time was gradually delayed and was associated with an increased demand for AT ⩾ 0°C late in the growing season. Furthermore, we observed variation among different growing seasons likely due to differences in weather patterns, and that sowing dates impact variations in drying times to a greater extent than harvest scenarios.

Tanjinul Hoque Mollah ◽  
Sharmin Shishir ◽  
Momotaz ◽  
Md. Shahedur Rashid

Abstract Tossa (Corchorus olitorius L.) is a significant cash crop, cultivated commercially in the lower flood plain of Bangladesh. The climatic regimes in Bangladesh are changing as well as the world does. However, this species is threatened by climate change. Occurrences of data on threatened and endangered species are frequently sparse which makes it difficult to analyse the species suitable habitat distribution using various modelling approaches. The current paper used maximum entropy (Maxent) and educational global climate model (EdGCM) modelling to predict and conserve the suitable habitat distributions for Tossa species in Bangladesh to the year 2100. Nine environmental variables, 239 occurrence data and two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were used for the Maxent modelling to project the impact of climate change on the Tossa distributions. Furthermore, the EdGCM was used to study the climatic space suitability for the Tossa species in the context of Bangladesh. Both of the climatic scenarios were used for the prediction to the year 2100. The Maxent model performed better than random for the Tossa species with a high AUC value of 0.86. Under the RCP scenarios, the Maxent model predicted habitat reduction for RCP4.5 is 2%, RCP8.5 is 9% and EdGCM is 10.2% from the current localities. The predictive modelling approach presented here is promising and can be applied to other important species for conservation planning, monitoring and management, especially those under the threat of extinction due to climate change.

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