vegetable production
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K.P. Aiswarya V. Dev ◽  
M. Rafeekher ◽  
S. Sarada

Background: Commercial cultivation of bitter gourd is affected by biotic stresses like mosaic disease, fusarium wilt and root-knot nematode as well as abiotic stress like drought. Grafting with resistant rootstocks can be a tool to control these problems. In vegetable production, grafting is exploited commercially in many parts of the world. The cultivated area of grafted solanaceae and cucubitaceae plants has increased tremendously in recent years because of the advantages of grafted plants. Commercial use of vegetable grafting is a relatively recent innovation in India and scientific information on grafting in bittergourd is meager. In this context, identification of suitable rootstocks and standardization of grafting techniques that do not have adverse effect on yield and fruit quality not only lay foundation for further evaluation on tolerance to different biotic and abiotic stresses but also enhance the area and production of bitter gourd especially in sustainable production systems. Methods: Grafting in bitter gourd was carried out with three grafting methods such as hole insertion grafting, one cotyledon grafting and cleft grafting using growth regulators viz., alar and CCC to control height of rootstocks in order to identify suitable method, growth regulator and its concentration. The grafting experiment was done independently to four cucurbitaceous rootstocks viz., sponge gourd, pumpkin, bottle gourd and bitter gourd using bittergourd var. Preethi as scion. Height and diameter of the rootstocks before grafting were recorded and then the growth regulators alar and CCC each at 10 mgL-1 and 50 mgL-1 along with distilled water as control were sprayed on rootstocks in order to prevent the lodging of the root stocks and then grafted using different methods. Days taken for graft union and percentage success were also evaluated after grafting. Result: Our study of grafting bitter gourd scion into four cucurbitaceous rootstocks utilizing three methods and two growth regulators at two different concentration along with control exhibited significant difference in graft success among the methods as well as concentration of growth regulator in all four experiments. This work can be further utilized for imparting resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses in bitter gourd by selecting suitable rootstocks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Yasin Topcu ◽  
Savithri U. Nambeesan ◽  
Esther van der Knaap

AbstractBlossom-end rot (BER) is a devastating physiological disorder affecting vegetable production worldwide. Extensive research into the physiological aspects of the disorder has demonstrated that the underlying causes of BER are associated with perturbed calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and irregular watering conditions in predominantly cultivated accessions. Further, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are critical players in BER development which, combined with unbalanced Ca2+ concentrations, greatly affect the severity of the disorder. The availability of a high-quality reference tomato genome as well as the whole genome resequencing of many accessions has recently permitted the genetic dissection of BER in segregating populations derived from crosses between cultivated tomato accessions. This has led to the identification of five loci contributing to BER from several studies. The eventual cloning of the genes contributing to BER would result in a deeper understanding of the molecular bases of the disorder. This will undoubtedly create crop improvement strategies for tomato as well as many other vegetables that suffer from BER.

2022 ◽  
Xiaozhong Wang ◽  
Tao Liang ◽  
Dunxiu Liao ◽  
Weilin Tao ◽  
Rui Jiang ◽  

Abstract Global warming has driven the expansion of cultivated land to high-altitude areas. Intensive vegetable production, which is generally considered to be a high economic value and high environmental risk system, has expanded greatly in high-altitude mountainous areas of China. However, the environmental cost of vegetable production in these areas is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated pepper production at low (traditional pepper production area) and high (newly expanded area) altitudes in Shizhu, a typical pepper crop area. The output and environmental cost at the two altitudes were identified. We evaluated the influence of resource inputs, climate, and soil properties on pepper production. There were obvious differences in output and environmental cost between the two altitudes. High-altitude pepper production achieved a 16.2% lower yield, and had a higher fertilizer input, resulting in a 22.3% lower net ecosystem economic benefit (NEEB), 23.0% higher nitrogen (N) footprint and 24.0% higher carbon (C) footprint compared to low-altitude farming. There is potential for environmental mitigation with both high- and low-altitude pepper production; Compared to average farmers, high yield farmers groups reduced their N and C footprints by 16.9–24.8% and 18.3–25.2%, respectively, with 30.6–34.1% higher yield. A large increase in yield could also be achieved by increasing the top-dress fertilizer rate and decreasing the plant density. Importantly, high-altitude pepper production was achieved despite less advanced technology and inferior conditions (e.g., a poor road system and uneven fields). It provides a reference for the study on environmental cost of other high-altitude regions or other crop systems at high altitude area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 503
Yongrui Hou ◽  
Tianyuan Luo ◽  
Jing Hao

As the demand for organic products quickly grows in the U.S., the domestic supply of organic commodities has stagnated and failed to meet the increasing needs. To expand the organic supply capacity in the country, it is crucial to identify the key factors that could effectively promote the scale of organic farming in the U.S. Using a multivariate analytic model and state level data from multiple sources and years, this study examines a wide range of determinants that could affect organic agriculture. The results show that research funding would significantly increase organic vegetable production and the number of organic farms. The development of organic farming could be greatly encouraged by the support of research institutions. In addition, the evidence shows that abundant farm workers are essential for the organic farming sector, which is labor-intensive. Finally, a large population base could create a more stable consumer group that would promote the development of organic agriculture. These results suggest the importance of exploring and expanding consumer groups for organic commodities. These findings provide insightful implications that research support, labor availability, and a solid consumer base are crucial to boost the organic sector in the U.S. and other countries.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
Huimin Zhang ◽  
Yancheng Liu ◽  
Zhiping Zhang ◽  
Minmin Miao

ABSTRACT: In this study, the labour requirement and labour cost of common vegetable cultivation were investigated to help agricultural enterprises and family farms establishing reasonable “working hour” management systems in Jiangsu Province. The labour requirement of each step of three type of producers, agriculture enterprises, family farms, and private vegetable growers, in three regions in Jiangsu Province, named north, middle and south Jiangsu, was investigated by on-site observation or questionnaire survey during 2018 and 2019. The labour cost of each step and each vegetable was counted according to the labour requirement and the salary level. The results indicated that “residue cleaning”, “soil preparation and bedding”, “plant regulation”, “auxin treatment of tomato flowers” and “hand pollination” accounted for higher proportions of labour cost amongst the entire vegetable culture process. No significant differences in the labour requirements of the investigated vegetables were reported amongst three regions in Jiangsu Province. However, the order of labour cost is south Jiangsu > north Jiangsu > middle Jiangsu, due to the salary difference amongst three regions. Watermelon, broccoli and chive are more suitable for growing by agricultural enterprises since they have relatively low unit labour and high prices. We established a method to calculate and analyze labour requirement and cost of vegetable production in Jiangsu Province, which also may be instructive for other regions. In addition, our results provided useful data for various vegetable producers to improve their labour management.

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