Self-Adaptive Single-Atom Catalyst Boosting Selective Ferroptosis in Tumor Cells

ACS Nano ◽  
2022 ◽  
Fangfang Cao ◽  
Yanjuan Sang ◽  
Chaoying Liu ◽  
Fuquan Bai ◽  
Lirong Zheng ◽  
C. N. Sun ◽  
C. Araoz ◽  
H. J. White

The ultrastructure of a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor has been reported previously. In the present case, we will present some unusual previously unreported membranous structures and alterations in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the tumor cells.Specimens were cut into small pieces about 1 mm3 and immediately fixed in 4% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer for two hours, then post-fixed in 1% buffered osmium tetroxide for one hour. After dehydration, tissues were embedded in Epon 812. Thin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate.In the cytoplasm of the tumor cells, we found paired cisternae (Fig. 1) and annulate lamellae (Fig. 2) noting that the annulate lamellae were sometimes associated with the outer nuclear envelope (Fig. 3). These membranous structures have been reported in other tumor cells. In our case, mitochondrial to nuclear envelope fusions were often noted (Fig. 4). Although this phenomenon was reported in an oncocytoma, their frequency in the present study is quite striking.

Wah Chi

Resolution and contrast are the important factors to determine the feasibility of imaging single heavy atoms on a thin substrate in an electron microscope. The present report compares the atom image characteristics in different modes of fixed beam dark field microscopy including the ideal beam stop (IBS), a wire beam stop (WBS), tilted illumination (Tl) and a displaced aperture (DA). Image contrast between one Hg and a column of linearly aligned carbon atoms (representing the substrate), are also discussed. The assumptions in the present calculations are perfectly coherent illumination, atom object is represented by spherically symmetric potential derived from Relativistic Hartree Fock Slater wave functions, phase grating approximation is used to evaluate the complex scattering amplitude, inelastic scattering is ignored, phase distortion is solely due to defocus and spherical abberation, and total elastic scattering cross section is evaluated by the Optical Theorem. The atom image intensities are presented in a Z-modulation display, and the details of calculation are described elsewhere.

J. C. Garancis ◽  
J. F. Kuzma ◽  
S. D. Wilson ◽  
E. H. Ellison

It has been proposed that a gastrin-like hormone elaborated by non-beta islet tumors of the pancreas may be responsible for a fulminating ulcer diathesis. Subsequently, a potent gastric secretagogue was isolated from ulcerogenic tumors of the pancreas. This disease process is known now as “Zollinger-Ellison syndrome”.In our studies of two cases of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, pancreatic lesions were identified as alpha islet cell tumors (Fig. 1). Tumor cells were fairly uniform. The sizes of the alpha granules were not significantly different, but their number and distribution varied greatly from one cell to another. Each granule consisted of a round, highly dense central core, separated from the limiting membrane by an opaque zone. The granular form of the endoplasmic reticulum was particularly prominent. Numerous mitochondria, round or elongated, were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Individual or clusters of lysosomes were observed in the majority of cells.

Krishan K. Arora ◽  
Glenn L. Decker ◽  
Peter L. Pedersen

Hexokinase (ATP: D-hexose 6-phophotransferase EC is the first enzyme of the glycolytic pathway which commits glucose to catabolism by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose with ATP. Previous studies have shown diat hexokinase activity is markedly elevated in rapidly growing tumor cells exhibiting high glucose catabolic rates. A large fraction (50-80%) of this enzyme activity is bound to the mitochondrial fraction (1,2) where it has preferred access to ATP (3). In contrast,the hexokinase activity of normal tissues is quite low, with one exception being brain which is a glucose-utilizing tissue (4). Biochemical evidence involving rigorous subfractionation studies have revealed striking differences between the subcellular distribution of hexokinase in normal and tumor cells [See review by Arora et al (4)].In the present report, we have utilized immunogold labeling techniques to evaluate die subcellular localization of hexokinase in highly glycolytic AS-30D hepatoma cells and in the tissue of its origin, i.e., rat liver.

C.D. Bucana ◽  
R. Sanchez ◽  
R. Singh ◽  
I.J. Fidler

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate by ISH the presence of IL-8 mRNA, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) the presence of the chemokine IL-8 and the distribution of infiltrating macrophages in subcutaneous melanomas in the same tumor. IL-8 is a multifunctional cytokine produced by melanoma cells, activated macrophages and monocytes and it has been shown to be a growth and angiogenic factor for tumor cells. More recently it was shown that constitutive expression of IL-8 correlated directly with metastatic potential of human melanoma cells in nude mice. IL-8 content of a solid tumor as determined by Western blot analysis does not take into account the contribution of macrophages. Previous studies showed that murine tumors contain many infiltrating cells interspersed among tumor cells whereas human tumors growing in nude mice exhibit macrophages at the periphery or between tumor islands. In this study we demonstrate the expression of IL-8 and the distribution of macrophages by immunoperoxidase assay and IL-8 mRNA by ISH.

J. J. Hren ◽  
S. D. Walck

The field ion microscope (FIM) has had the ability to routinely image the surface atoms of metals since Mueller perfected it in 1956. Since 1967, the TOF Atom Probe has had single atom sensitivity in conjunction with the FIM. “Why then hasn't the FIM enjoyed the success of the electron microscope?” The answer is closely related to the evolution of FIM/Atom Probe techniques and the available technology. This paper will review this evolution from Mueller's early discoveries, to the development of a viable commercial instrument. It will touch upon some important contributions of individuals and groups, but will not attempt to be all inclusive. Variations in instrumentation that define the class of problems for which the FIM/AP is uniquely suited and those for which it is not will be described. The influence of high electric fields inherent to the technique on the specimens studied will also be discussed. The specimen geometry as it relates to preparation, statistical sampling and compatibility with the TEM will be examined.

John R. Palisano

Although confronting cistemae (CC) have been observed in a variety of tumor cells and normal fetal rat, mouse, and human epithelial tissues, little is known about their origin or role in mitotic cells. While several investigators have suggested that CC arise from nuclear envelope (NE) folding back on itself during prophase, others have suggested that CC arise when fragments of NE pair with endoplasmic reticulum. An electron microscopic investigation of 0.25 um thick serial sections was undertaken to examine the origin of CC in HeLa cells.

G. L. Kellogg ◽  
P. R. Schwoebel

Although no longer unique in its ability to resolve individual single atoms on surfaces, the field ion microscope remains a powerful tool for the quantitative characterization of atomic processes on single-crystal surfaces. Investigations of single-atom surface diffusion, adatom-adatom interactions, surface reconstructions, cluster nucleation and growth, and a variety of surface chemical reactions have provided new insights to the atomic nature of surfaces. Moreover, the ability to determine the chemical identity of selected atoms seen in the field ion microscope image by atom-probe mass spectroscopy has increased or even changed our understanding of solid-state-reaction processes such as ordering, clustering, precipitation and segregation in alloys. This presentation focuses on the operational principles of the field-ion microscope and atom-probe mass spectrometer and some very recent applications of the field ion microscope to the nucleation and growth of metal clusters on metal surfaces.The structure assumed by clusters of atoms on a single-crystal surface yields fundamental information on the adatom-adatom interactions important in crystal growth. It was discovered in previous investigations with the field ion microscope that, contrary to intuition, the initial structure of clusters of Pt, Pd, Ir and Ni atoms on W(110) is a linear chain oriented in the <111> direction of the substrate.

Nanoscale ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (15) ◽  
pp. 8065-8094 ◽  
Xudong Wen ◽  
Jingqi Guan

Different kinds of electrocatalysts used in NRR electrocatalysis (including single atom catalysts, metal oxide catalysts, nanocomposite catalysts, and metal free catalysts) are introduced.

Nanoscale ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (39) ◽  
pp. 20413-20424
Riming Hu ◽  
Yongcheng Li ◽  
Fuhe Wang ◽  
Jiaxiang Shang

Bilayer single atom catalysts can serve as promising multifunctional electrocatalysts for the HER, ORR, and OER.

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