endoplasmic reticulum
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 873-877
Dongqian Xie ◽  
Zhicheng Gao ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  
Defeng Wang

Metformin is shown to have hypoglycemic effects. However, the relationship between metformin’s intervention in FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated insulin resistance (IR) and insulin β-cell apoptosis under high-glucose condition remains unclear. Our study intends to assess their relationship. Human pancreatic β-cells were treated with metformin and cell proliferation and IR were detected by MTT assay along with detection of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by RT-PCR, cell cycle and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Metformin inhibited β cell proliferation which was mediated by FFA-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner as well as induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In addition, metformin inhibited β-catenin signaling activation and decreased the expression of c-myc, Dvl-2, survivin, Dvl-3, GSK-3β (p-ser9) and promoted GSK-3 (p-tyr216) and Axin-2 expression. In conclusion, metformin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promotes FFA to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, thereby mediating pancreatic β-cells behaviors.

Nano Today ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 101356
Liqiang Chen ◽  
Chendong Liu ◽  
Yucheng Xiang ◽  
Jiayan Lyu ◽  
Zhou Zhou ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 89 ◽  
pp. 104935
Ke Du ◽  
Xi Zheng ◽  
Junya Lv ◽  
Xin Zhong ◽  
Minjie Wei ◽  

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Laura R. Rodríguez ◽  
Tamara Lapeña-Luzón ◽  
Noelia Benetó ◽  
Vicent Beltran-Beltran ◽  
Federico V. Pallardó ◽  

Calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile secondary messenger involved in the regulation of a plethora of different signaling pathways for cell maintenance. Specifically, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is mainly regulated by the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria, whose Ca2+ exchange is mediated by appositions, termed endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), formed by proteins resident in both compartments. These tethers are essential to manage the mitochondrial Ca2+ influx that regulates the mitochondrial function of bioenergetics, mitochondrial dynamics, cell death, and oxidative stress. However, alterations of these pathways lead to the development of multiple human diseases, including neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s ataxia, and Charcot–Marie–Tooth. A common hallmark in these disorders is mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with abnormal mitochondrial Ca2+ handling that contributes to neurodegeneration. In this work, we highlight the importance of Ca2+ signaling in mitochondria and how the mechanism of communication in MAMs is pivotal for mitochondrial maintenance and cell homeostasis. Lately, we outstand potential targets located in MAMs by addressing different therapeutic strategies focused on restoring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake as an emergent approach for neurological diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0009192
Michael Weingartner ◽  
Simon Stücheli ◽  
Fadi Jebbawi ◽  
Bruno Gottstein ◽  
Guido Beldi ◽  

Background Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a rising zoonotic disease in the northern hemisphere. Treatment of this fatal disease is limited to chemotherapy using benzimidazoles and surgical intervention, with frequent disease recurrence in cases without radical surgery. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying E. multilocularis infections and host-parasite interactions ultimately aids developing novel therapeutic options. This study explored an involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum-stress (ERS) during E. multilocularis infection in mice. Methods E. multilocularis- and mock-infected C57BL/6 mice were subdivided into vehicle, albendazole (ABZ) and anti-programmed death ligand 1 (αPD-L1) treated groups. To mimic a chronic infection, treatments of mice started six weeks post i.p. infection and continued for another eight weeks. Liver tissue was then collected to examine inflammatory cytokines and the expression of UPR- and ERS-related genes. Results E. multilocularis infection led to an upregulation of UPR- and ERS-related proteins in the liver, including ATF6, CHOP, GRP78, ERp72, H6PD and calreticulin, whilst PERK and its target eIF2α were not affected, and IRE1α and ATF4 were downregulated. ABZ treatment in E. multilocularis infected mice reversed, or at least tended to reverse, these protein expression changes to levels seen in mock-infected mice. Furthermore, ABZ treatment reversed the elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ in the liver of infected mice. Similar to ABZ, αPD-L1 immune-treatment tended to reverse the increased CHOP and decreased ATF4 and IRE1α expression levels. Conclusions and significance AE caused chronic inflammation, UPR activation and ERS in mice. The E. multilocularis-induced inflammation and consecutive ERS was ameliorated by ABZ and αPD-L1 treatment, indicating their effectiveness to inhibit parasite proliferation and downregulate its activity status. Neither ABZ nor αPD-L1 themselves affected UPR in control mice. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between inflammation, UPR and ERS, and if these pathways offer potential for improved therapies of patients with AE.

Yifan Ren ◽  
Wuming Liu ◽  
Jia Zhang ◽  
Jianbin Bi ◽  
Meng Fan ◽  

Excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of exocrine acinar damage in acute pancreatitis. Our previous study found that milk fat globule EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), a lipophilic glycoprotein, alleviates acinar cell damage during AP via binding to αvβ3/5 integrins. Ligand-dependent integrin-FAK activation of STAT3 was reported to be of great importance for maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, MFG-E8’s role in ER stress in pancreatic exocrine acinar cells has not been evaluated. To study this, thapsigargin, brefeldin A, tunicamycin and cerulein + LPS were used to induce ER stress in rat pancreatic acinar cells in vitro. L-arginine- and cerulein + LPS-induced acute pancreatitis in mice were used to study ER stress in vivo. The results showed that MFG-E8 dose-dependently inhibited ER stress under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. MFG-E8 knockout mice suffered more severe ER stress and greater inflammatory response after L-arginine administration. Mechanistically, MFG-E8 increased phosphorylation of FAK and STAT3 in cerulein + LPS-treated pancreatic acinar cells. The presence of specific inhibitors of αvβ3/5 integrin, FAK or STAT3 abolished MFG-E8’s effect on cerulein + LPS-induced ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells. In conclusion, MFG-E8 maintains cellular homeostasis by alleviating ER stress in pancreatic exocrine acinar cells.

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