Tumor Cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 500-505
Author(s):  
Mouzhang Huang ◽  
Limei Zeng ◽  
Rongping Zhu ◽  
Gongqun Chen ◽  
Haijian Wu ◽  
...  

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a wide-spectrum drug to treat different kinds of cancers. However, in clinical practice, Dox usually showed untargeted distributions to the other organs, which can cause serious side effects, such as cardiotoxity. Herein, the formulation of Dox into nanoparticles is critical to enhance its distribution to tumors. Herein, we used polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid, to stabilize the Dox to form nano-precipitations (PD NPs) for the therapy of osteosarcoma. The PD NPs showed enhanced drug accumulation to tumor cells and realized better anticancer effects than free drugs.


Bioengineered ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 2130-2138
Author(s):  
Yasi Xing ◽  
Xinfa Zhang ◽  
Fangyuan Qin ◽  
Jingwen Yang ◽  
Lei Ai ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 936
Author(s):  
Denis Miyashiro ◽  
Bruno de Castro e Souza ◽  
Marina Passos Torrealba ◽  
Kelly Cristina Gomes Manfrere ◽  
Maria Notomi Sato ◽  
...  

Sézary syndrome is an aggressive leukemic variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, characterized by erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and peripheral blood involvement by CD4+ malignant T-cells. The pathogenesis of Sézary syndrome is not fully understood. However, the course of the disease is strongly influenced by the tumor microenvironment, which is altered by a combination of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. The crosstalk between malignant and reactive cells affects the immunologic response against tumor cells causing immune dysregulation. This review focuses on the interaction of malignant Sézary cells and the tumor microenvironment.


Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 197
Author(s):  
Chuanqi Wang ◽  
Manting Wang ◽  
Peng Chen ◽  
Jiexin Wang ◽  
Yuan Le

In this work, dasatinib (DAS) nanoemulsion and nanocrystal are produced by high-gravity technology that approaches to practical mass production. The drug nanoformulations were systematically characterized and evaluated. At a low high-gravity level (β) = 47, nanoemulsion droplets were 16.15 ± 0.42 nm with a PDI of 0.122 ± 0.021. The nanoemulsion’s size and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content remained stable at long-term (4 months) freeze–thaw and dilution experiments. At a high β = 188, the as-prepared nanocrystal was lamellar with a short diameter of about 200 nm and a long diameter of about 750 nm. In vitro performances demonstrated the nanoemulsion displayed higher cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 tumor cells, Caco-2 cell permeability and drug release than that of the nanocrystal, indicating that nanoemulsion should be an ideal alternative for dasatinib oral administration.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 926
Author(s):  
Marek Mazurek ◽  
Dariusz Szczepanek ◽  
Anna Orzyłowska ◽  
Radosław Rola

Glial tumors are one of the most common lesions of the central nervous system. Despite the implementation of appropriate treatment, the prognosis is not successful. As shown in the literature, maximal tumor resection is a key element in improving therapeutic outcome. One of the methods to achieve it is the use of fluorescent intraoperative navigation with 5-aminolevulinic acid. Unfortunately, often the level of fluorescence emitted is not satisfactory, resulting in difficulties in the course of surgery. This article summarizes currently available knowledge regarding differences in the level of emitted fluorescence. It may depend on both the histological type and the genetic profile of the tumor, which is reflected in the activity and expression of enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolism of fluorescent dyes, such as PBGD, FECH, UROS, and ALAS. The transport of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its metabolites across the blood–brain barrier and cell membranes mediated by transporters, such as ABCB6 and ABCG2, is also important. Accompanying therapies, such as antiepileptic drugs or steroids, also have an impact on light emission by tumor cells. Accurate determination of the factors influencing the fluorescence of 5-aminolevulinic acid-treated cells may contribute to the improvement of fluorescence navigation in patients with highly malignant gliomas.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ni An ◽  
Zhenjie Li ◽  
Xiaodi Yan ◽  
Hainan Zhao ◽  
Yajie Yang ◽  
...  

AbstractThe lung is one of the most sensitive tissues to ionizing radiation, thus, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) stays a key dose-limiting factor of thoracic radiotherapy. However, there is still little progress in the effective treatment of RILI. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1, Rac1, is a small guanosine triphosphatases involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Thus, Rac1 may be an important molecule that mediates radiation damage, inhibition of which may produce a protective effect on RILI. By establishing a mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury and orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mouse model, we detected the role of Rac1 inhibition in the protection of RILI and suppression of lung tumor. The results showed that ionizing radiation induces the nuclear translocation of Rac1, the latter then promotes nuclear translocation of P53 and prolongs the residence time of p53 in the nucleus, thereby promoting the transcription of Trp53inp1 which mediates p53-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of Rac1 significantly reduce the apoptosis of normal lung epithelial cells, thereby effectively alleviating RILI. On the other hand, inhibition of Rac1 could also significantly inhibit the growth of lung tumor, increase the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells. These differential effects of Rac1 inhibition were related to the mutation and overexpression of Rac1 in tumor cells.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xinyu Mei ◽  
Huan Li ◽  
Xinpeng Zhou ◽  
Min Cheng ◽  
Kele Cui

Malignant digestive tract tumors are a great threat to human public health. In addition to surgery, immunotherapy brings hope for the treatment of these tumors. Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T (Trm) cells are a focus of tumor immunology research and treatment due to their powerful cytotoxic effects, ability to directly kill epithelial-derived tumor cells, and overall impact on maintaining mucosal homeostasis and antitumor function in the digestive tract. They are a group of noncirculating immune cells expressing adhesion and migration molecules such as CD69, CD103, and CD49a that primarily reside on the barrier epithelium of nonlymphoid organs and respond rapidly to both viral and bacterial infection and tumorigenesis. This review highlights new research exploring the role of CD8+ Trm cells in a variety of digestive tract malignant tumors, including esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. A summary of CD8+ Trm cell phenotypes and characteristics, tissue distribution, and antitumor functions in different tumor environments is provided, illustrating how these cells may be used in immunotherapies against digestive tract tumors.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 868
Author(s):  
Huijuan Cheng ◽  
Qian Yang ◽  
Rongrong Wang ◽  
Ruhua Luo ◽  
Shanshan Zhu ◽  
...  

Exosomes derived from tumor cells contain various molecular components, such as proteins, RNA, DNA, lipids, and carbohydrates. These components play a crucial role in all stages of tumorigenesis and development. Moreover, they reflect the physiological and pathological status of parental tumor cells. Recently, tumor-derived exosomes have become popular biomarkers for non-invasive liquid biopsy and the diagnosis of numerous cancers. The interdisciplinary significance of exosomes research has also attracted growing enthusiasm. However, the intrinsic nature of tumor-derived exosomes requires advanced methods to detect and evaluate the complex biofluid. This review analyzes the relationship between exosomes and tumors. It also summarizes the exosomal biological origin, composition, and application of molecular markers in clinical cancer diagnosis. Remarkably, this paper constitutes a comprehensive summary of the innovative research on numerous detection strategies for tumor-derived exosomes with the intent of providing a theoretical basis and reference for early diagnosis and clinical treatment of cancer.


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