Ozone treatment alleviates brain injury in cerebral ischemic rats by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway and autophagy

Cell Cycle ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Liang Zhu ◽  
Shengyang Ding ◽  
Lingshan Xu ◽  
Zhouquan Wu
2019 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 329-336
Wang Jinli ◽  
Xu Fenfen ◽  
Zheng Yuan ◽  
Cheng Xu ◽  
Zhang Piaopiao ◽  

Cardiovascular disease including cerebral ischemic stroke is the major complication that increases the morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus as much as four times. It has been well established that irisin, with its ability to regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, has been widely examined for its therapeutic potentials in managing metabolic disorders. However, the mechanism of irisin in the regulation of cerebral ischemic stroke remains unclear. Using PC12 cells as a model, we have shown that hypoxia/reoxygenation inhibits cell viability and increases lactic dehydrogenase. Irisin, in a dose-dependent manner, reversed these changes. The increase in inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) by hypoxia/reoxygenation was reversed by irisin. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis promoted by hypoxia/reoxygenation was also inhibited by irisin. Irisin suppressed TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway leading to amelioration of inflammation and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Thus, inhibition of TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway via irisin could be an important mechanism in the regulation of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced inflammation and apoptosis in PC12 cells.

2018 ◽  
Vol 26 (8) ◽  
pp. 1082-1093 ◽  
Natalia M. Tulina ◽  
Amy G. Brown ◽  
Guillermo O. Barila ◽  
Michal A. Elovitz

Background: Exposure to intrauterine inflammation during pregnancy is linked to brain injury and neurobehavioral disorders in affected children. Innate immunity, specifically Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways are present throughout the reproductive tract as well as in the placenta, fetal membranes, and fetus. The TLR pathways are mechanistically involved in host responses to foreign pathogens and may lead to brain injury associated with prenatal inflammation. Objective: We aimed to determine whether the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway, in the mother and fetus, is critical to fetal brain injury in the setting of intrauterine inflammation. Methods: A mini-laparotomy was performed on time pregnant C57B6 mice and 2 knockout mouse strains lacking the function of the Tlr4 and Myd88 genes on embryonic day 15. Intrauterine injections of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide or saline were administered as described previously. Dams were killed 6 hours postsurgery, and placental, amniotic fluid, and fetal brain tissue were collected. To assess brain injury, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was performed on multiple components of the NOTCH signaling pathway, including Hes genes. Interleukin (IL) IL6, IL1β, and CCL5 expression was assessed using qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Using an established mouse model of intrauterine inflammation, we demonstrate that the abrogation of TLR4 signaling eliminates the cytokine response in mother and fetus and prevents brain injury associated with increased expression of transcriptional effectors of the NOTCH signaling pathway, Hes1 and Hes5. Conclusions: These data show that the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway is necessary for the development of fetal brain injury in response to intrauterine inflammation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document