Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the early onset of communication and behavioral problems. ASD is highly heritable; however, environmental factors also play a considerable role in this disorder. A significant part of both syndromic and idiopathic autism cases could be attributed to disorders caused by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent translation deregulation. This narrative review analyzes both bioinformatic and experimental evidence that connects mTOR signaling to the maternal autoantibody-related (MAR) autism spectrum and autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders simultaneously. In addition, we reconstruct a network presenting the interactions between the mTOR signaling and eight MAR ASD genes coding for ASD-specific maternal autoantibody target proteins. The research discussed in this review demonstrates novel perspectives and validates the need for a subtyping of ASD on the grounds of pathogenic mechanisms. The utter necessity of designing ELISA-based test panels to identify all antibodies related to autism-like behavior is also considered.
Bladder cancer patients whose tumors develop resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy often turn to natural, plant-derived products. Beneficial effects have been particularly ascribed to polyphenols, although their therapeutic relevance when resistance has developed is not clear. The present study evaluated the anti-tumor potential of polyphenol-rich olive mill wastewater (OMWW) on chemo-sensitive and cisplatin- and gemcitabine-resistant T24, RT112, and TCCSUP bladder cancer cells in vitro. The cells were treated with different dilutions of OMWW, and tumor growth and clone formation were evaluated. Possible mechanisms of action were investigated by evaluating cell cycle phases and cell cycle-regulating proteins. OMWW profoundly inhibited the growth and proliferation of chemo-sensitive as well as gemcitabine- and cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer cells. Depending on the cell line and on gemcitabine- or cisplatin-resistance, OMWW induced cell cycle arrest at different phases. These differing phase arrests were accompanied by differing alterations in the CDK-cyclin axis. Considerable suppression of the Akt-mTOR pathway by OMWW was observed in all three cell lines. Since OMWW blocks the cell cycle through the manipulation of the cyclin-CDK axis and the deactivation of Akt-mTOR signaling, OMWW could become relevant in supporting bladder cancer therapy.
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-related signaling is associated with prostate cancer progression. Links were explored between IGF-1 and expression of integrin adhesion receptors to evaluate relevance for growth and migration. Androgen-resistant PC3 and DU145 and androgen-sensitive LNCaP and VCaP prostate cancer cells were stimulated with IGF-1 and tumor growth (all cell lines), adhesion and chemotaxis (PC3, DU145) were determined. Evaluation of Akt/mTOR-related proteins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and integrin α and β subtype expression followed. Akt knock-down was used to investigate its influence on integrin expression, while FAK blockade served to evaluate its influence on mTOR signaling. Integrin knock-down served to investigate its influence on tumor growth and chemotaxis. Stimulation with IGF-1 activated growth in PC3, DU145, and VCaP cells, and altered adhesion and chemotactic properties of DU145 and PC3 cells. This was associated with time-dependent alterations of the integrins α3, α5, αV, and β1, FAK phosphorylation and Akt/mTOR signaling. Integrin blockade or integrin knock-down in DU145 and PC3 cells altered tumor growth, adhesion, and chemotaxis. Akt knock-down (DU145 cells) cancelled the effect of IGF-1 on α3, α5, and αV integrins, whereas FAK blockade cancelled the effect of IGF-1 on mTOR signaling (DU145 cells). Prostate cancer growth and invasion are thus controlled by a fine-tuned network between IGF-1 driven integrin-FAK signaling and the Akt-mTOR pathway. Concerted targeting of integrin subtypes along with Akt-mTOR signaling could, therefore, open options to prevent progressive dissemination of prostate cancer.
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a pivotal regulator of cell metabolism and growth. In the form of two different multi-protein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR integrates cellular energy, nutrient and hormonal signals to regulate cellular metabolic homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aberrant mTOR signaling underlies its pathological conditions and end-organ complications. Substantial evidence suggests that two mTOR-mediated signaling schemes, mTORC1-p70S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and mTORC2-protein kinase B (AKT), play a critical role in insulin sensitivity and that their dysfunction contributes to development of T2DM. This review summaries our current understanding of the role of mTOR signaling in T2DM and its associated complications, as well as the potential use of mTOR inhibitors in treatment of T2DM.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant clonal disease of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor-cell origin. AML features massive proliferation of abnormal blasts and leukemia cells in the bone marrow and the inhibition of normal hematopoiesis at onset. Exosomes containing proteins or nucleic acids are secreted by cells; they participate in intercellular communication and serve as key modulators of hematopoiesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the regulation of AML and the underlying mechanisms mediated by microRNA (miRNA).
Dysregulated miR-7-5p in AML patients was identified using qRT-PCR and its clinical significance was explored. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the target gene OSBPL11 that could be regulated by miR-7-5p. The findings were validated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. The functional genes of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway were identified, and the functional significance of miR-7-5p in AML cells was determined using a functional recovery assay. AML cells were co-cultured with exosomes originating from BMSCs overexpressing miR-7-5p to determine cell–cell regulation by Exo-miR-7-5p, as well as in vitro and in vivo functional validation via gain- and loss-of-function methods.
Expression of miR-7-5p was decreased in AML patients and cells. Overexpression of miR-7-5p curbed cellular proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Overexpression of OSBPL11 reversed the tumorigenic properties of miR-7-5p in AML cells in vitro. Exo-miR-7-5p derived from BMSCs induced formation of AML cells prone to apoptosis and a low survival rate, with OSBPL11 expression inhibited through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Exo-miR-7-5p derived from BMSCs exhibited tumor homing effects in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited AML development.
Exo-miR-7-5p derived from BMSCs negatively regulates OSBPL11 by suppressing the phosphorylation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting AML proliferation and promoting apoptosis. The data will inform the development of AML therapies based on BMSC-derived exosomes.
Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer among women. Baicalin has been shown to inhibit breast cancer proliferation, but poor aqueous solubility and unknown mechanism of action limit its application. This study aimed to investigate the antiproliferative effects of baicalin-loaded folic acid-modified albumin nanoparticles (FA-BSANPs/BA) in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and its relationship with autophagy and ROS-mediated p38 MAPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to detect cell cycle, apoptosis and autophagy. Western blot was used to detect protein expression.
Compared with the control and free baicalin groups, FA-BSANPs/BA inhibited viability of MCF-7 cells and increased cells in S phase, apoptotic bodies, pro-apoptotic proteins, autophagy markers and autophagosomes. These effects could be reversed when combined with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. FA-BSANPs/BA increased the levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, inhibited the levels of phosphorylated Akt and mTOR, and increased the level of ROS in MCF-7 cells. The effects of FA-BSANPs/BA could be reversed or enhanced using inhibitors of Akt, mTOR, p38 MAPK and ROS scavengers.
Encapsulation in folate albumin nanoparticles improved the antiproliferative activity of baicalin. FA-BSANPs/BA induced autophagy and apoptosis via ROS-mediated p38 MAPK and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells.