The current study aimed to dissect the impacts and mechanisms of hydroxycamptothecin on breast cancer. Collect conditioned medium from MSCs cells to apply it into the co-culture system of breast cancer cells, which were pre-treated with hydroxycamptothecin. The cell counting kit was
employed to measure the proliferation potential of cells, while the phosphorylation degrees of AKT/MAPKrelated proteins were examined via Western blotting. Then the cellular migration was test by transwell. Finally, the transcriptional and translational levels of IL-6 and RANTES in cells were
detected by real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HC could remarkably influence the interplay between MSC and breast malignant cells, reduce the MSC-activated migrative behavior of breast malignant cells and impede the capability of MSC to maintain the migration of cancer cells.
RANTES and IL-6 exerted a synergistic induction in the migrative feature of breast cancer cells. HC could retard the migrating activities of breast cancer cells via diminishing the RANTES and IL-6 levels. Hydroxycamptothecin could impede the proliferative and migrative activities of MSC, of
which the impediment was accompanied by an inhibitory impact on the secretory production of two growth factors IL-6 and RANTES from MSC, thereby enhancing the migration of breast malignant cells.
To elucidate the communication between exosomes (exo) derived from BMSCs and injured lung cells. BMSC-exo was isolated and characterized. Lung epithelial cells A549 were incubated with BMSC-exo, and treated by LPS to induce cell damage. CCK-8 assay was carried out to test cell proliferation,
flow cytometry was adopted to analyze cell apoptosis, and RT-qPCR as well as Western blot analysis were selected to assess expression of apoptosis- and anti-apoptosis related proteins. Functional experiment was performed to identify the role of microRNA (miRNA)-328 in lung injury. LPS treatment
significantly inhibited the viability of A549 cells, induced apoptosis of A549 cells by increasing Bax and casepase-3 levels and reducing Bcl-2 expression, whilst declined expression of miR-328 and suppressed the phosphorylation activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Meanwhile, the amount of
IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α were elevated in injured cells, but, the presence of BMSC-exo eliminated the elevation of the contents. Importantly, treatment with BMSC-exo increased miR-328 expression, activated MAPK MAPK/ERK pathway, inhibited apoptosis, and enhanced cell
proliferation. However, the effect of BMSC-exo was attenuated when the cells were silenced for miR-328 expression. Collectively, BMSC-exo enriched miR-328 could relieve acute lung injury through MAPK/ERK pathway.
Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder caused by the dysregulation of the Rat Sarcoma/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway and characterized by short stature, heart defects, pectus excavatum, webbed neck, learning disabilities, cryptorchidism, and facial dysmorphia. Villonodular synovitis is a joint disorder most common in young adults characterized by an abnormal proliferation of the synovial membrane. Multifocal Villonodular synovitis is a rare disease whose recurrent nature can make its management particularly difficult. Currently, there is no systemic therapy recommended in diffuse and recurrent forms, especially because of the fear of long-term side effects in patients, who are usually young. Yet, tyrosine kinase inhibitors seem promising to reduce the effects of an aberrant colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) production at the origin of the synovial nodule proliferation. We present here the case of a 21-year-old woman with NS associated to diffuse multifocal villonodular synovitis (DMVS). Our clinical case provides therapeutic experience in this very rare association. Indeed, in association with surgery, the patient improved considerably: she had complete daily life autonomy, knee joint amplitudes of 100° in flexion and 0° in extension and was able to walk for 10 min without any technical assistance. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient suffering from DMVS associated with a Noonan syndrome treated with Glivec® (oral administration at a dosage of 340 mg/m2 in children, until disease regression) on a long-term basis.
Drought stress severely restricts edible fungus production. The genus Auricularia has a rare drought tolerance, a rehydration capability, and is nutrient rich.
The key genes and metabolic pathways involved in drought-stress and rehydration were investigated using a transcriptome analysis to clarify the relevant molecular mechanisms. In total, 173.93 Mb clean reads, 26.09 Gb of data bulk, and 52,954 unigenes were obtained. Under drought-stress and rehydration conditions, 14,235 and 8539 differentially expressed genes, respectively, were detected. ‘Tyrosine metabolic’, ‘caffeine metabolism’, ‘ribosome’, ‘phagosome’, and ‘proline and arginine metabolism’, as well as ‘peroxisome’ and ‘mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling’ pathways, had major roles in A. fibrillifera responses to drought stress. ‘Tyrosine’ and ‘caffeine metabolism’ might reveal unknown mechanisms for the antioxidation of A. fibrillifera under drought-stress conditions. During the rehydration process, ‘diterpenoid biosynthesis’, ‘butanoate metabolism’, ‘C5-branched dibasic acid’, and ‘aflatoxin biosynthesis’ pathways were significantly enriched. Gibberellins and γ-aminobutyric acid were important in the recovery of A. fibrillifera growth after rehydration. Many genes related to antibiotics, vitamins, and other health-related ingredients were found in A. fibrillifera.
These findings suggested that the candidate genes and metabolites involved in crucial biological pathways might regulate the drought tolerance or rehydration of Auricularia, shedding light on the corresponding mechanisms and providing new potential targets for the breeding and cultivation of drought-tolerant fungi.
Colletotrichum fructicola, the causal agent of pear anthracnose, causes significant annual economic losses. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction pathways that play a crucial role in mediating cellular responses to environmental and host signals in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene, CfMK1, and characterized its function in C. fructicola. The Cfmk1 deletion mutants exhibited poorly developed aerial hyphae, autolysis, no conidial mass or perithecia on solid plates. However, the conidiation of the Cfmk1 mutant in PDB liquid medium was normal compared with that of the wild type (WT). Conidia of the Cfmk1 mutant exhibited a reduced germination rate on glass slides or plant surfaces. The Cfmk1 deletion mutants were unable to form appressoria and lost the capacity to penetrate plant epidermal cells. The ability of the Cfmk1 mutants to infect pear leaves and fruit was severely reduced. Moreover, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the WT and Cfmk1 mutant was performed, and the results revealed 1886 upregulated and 1554 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the mutant. The DEGs were significantly enriched in cell wall and pathogenesis terms, which was consistent with the defects of the Cfmk1 mutant in cell wall integrity and plant infection. Overall, our data demonstrate that CfMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of aerial hyphal growth, asexual and sexual reproduction, autolysis, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4) was first identified as a negative regulator of systemic acquired resistance. It is also an important kinase involved in many other biological processes in plants, including cytokinesis, reproduction, and photosynthesis. Arabidopsis thaliana mpk4 mutant is dwarf and sterile. Previous omics studies including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have revealed new functions of MPK4 in different biological processes. However, due to challenges in metabolomics, no study has touched upon the metabolomic profiles of the mpk4 mutant. What metabolites and metabolic pathways are potentially regulated by MPK4 are not known. Metabolites are crucial components of plants, and they play important roles in plant growth and development, signaling, and defense. Here we used targeted and untargeted metabolomics to profile metabolites in the wild type and the mpk4 mutant. We found that in addition to the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways, MPK4 is involved in polyamine synthesis and photosynthesis. In addition, we also conducted label-free proteomics of the two genotypes. The integration of metabolomics and proteomics data allows for an insight into the metabolomic networks that are potentially regulated by MPK4.
Male infertility is a major health issue with an estimated prevalence of 4.2% of male infertility worldwide. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the main causes of male infertility, which is characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or lack of antioxidants. Meanwhile, it is reported that oxidative stress plays an important role in the spermatogenic impairment in Inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2-like (Immp2l) mutant mice. In this study, we focused on the potential mechanism of Guilingji in protecting the spermatogenic functions in Immp2l mutant mice. The results revealed that Immp2l mutant mice exhibit impaired spermatogenesis and histology shows seminiferous tubules with reduced spermatogenic cells. After administration of Guilingji [150 mg/kg per day intragastric gavage], however, alleviated spermatogenesis impairment and reversed testis histopathological damage and reduced apoptosis. What’s more, western blotting and the levels of redox classic markers revealed that Guilingji can markedly reduce reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Guilingji treatment led to inhibition of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), regulated apoptosis in the cells. In summary, Guilingji can improve spermatogenesis in Immp2l mutant mice by regulating oxidation-antioxidant balance and MAPK pathway. Our data suggests that Guilingji may be a promising and effective antioxidant candidate for the treatment of male infertility.
So far, a number of acupuncture studies have shown anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture treatment, mostly known at specific point ST36. However, there is no literature that oversaw the inflammation-regulatory effects of acupuncture in each tissue. Therefore, we investigated how acupuncture at specific acupoint ST36 regulates inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. We searched literatures on PubMed until July 2021 using the keywords “animal, acupuncture, ST36, inflammation, immune,” and 292 literatures were searched. We ultimately selected 69 studies to determine the anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture at ST36 and classified the changes of inflammatory mediators according to target regions. Forty-three studies were included in body fluids, 27 studies in the digestive system, 17 studies in the nervous system, and 30 studies in other tissues or organs. In this review, we found that acupuncture at ST36 has clinical benefits in relieving inflammation through several mechanisms such as vagus nerve activation, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling, macrophage polarization, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. We expect that these data will inform further studies related to ST36 acupuncture on inflammation.
AbstractExtracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an atypical member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, members of which play essential roles in diverse cellular processes during carcinogenesis, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and invasion. Unlike other MAPKs, ERK3 is an unstable protein with a short half-life. Although deubiquitination of ERK3 has been suggested to regulate the activity, its ubiquitination has not been described in the literature. Here, we report that FBXW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7) acts as a ubiquitination E3 ligase for ERK3. Mammalian two-hybrid assay and immunoprecipitation results demonstrated that ERK3 is a novel binding partner of FBXW7. Furthermore, complex formation between ERK3 and the S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1)-cullin 1-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ligase resulted in the destabilization of ERK3 via a ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway, and FBXW7 depletion restored ERK3 protein levels by inhibiting this ubiquitination. The interaction between ERK3 and FBXW7 was driven by binding between the C34D of ERK3, especially at Thr417 and Thr421, and the WD40 domain of FBXW7. A double mutant of ERK3 (Thr417 and Thr421 to alanine) abrogated FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination. Importantly, ERK3 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle. These results show that FBXW7-mediated ERK3 destabilization suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation in vitro.