Genome assembly of the Australian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) reveals a fragmented IHHNV EVE sequence
Shrimp are a valuable aquaculture species globally; however, disease remains a major hindrance to shrimp aquaculture sustainability and growth. Mechanisms mediated by endogenous viral elements (EVEs) have been proposed as a means by which shrimp that encounter a new virus start to accommodate rather than succumb to infection over time. However, evidence on the nature of such EVEs and how they mediate viral accommodation is limited. More extensive genomic data on Penaeid shrimp from different geographical locations should assist in exposing the diversity of EVEs. In this context, reported here is a PacBio Sequel-based draft genome assembly of an Australian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) inbred for one generation. The 1.89 Gbp draft genome is comprised of 31,922 scaffolds (N50: 496,398 bp) covering 85.9% of the projected genome size. The genome repeat content (61.8% with 30% representing simple sequence repeats) is almost the highest identified for any species. The functional annotation identified 35,517 gene models, of which 25,809 were protein-coding and 17,158 were annotated using interproscan. Scaffold scanning for specific EVEs identified an element comprised of a 9,045 bp stretch of repeated, inverted and jumbled genome fragments of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) bounded by a repeated 591/590 bp host sequence. As only near complete linear ~4 kb IHHNV genomes have been found integrated in the genome of P. monodon previously, its discovery has implications regarding the validity of PCR tests designed to specifically detect such linear EVE types. The existence of conjoined inverted IHHNV genome fragments also provides a means by which hairpin dsRNAs could be expressed and processed by the shrimp RNA interference (RNAi) machinery.