Grassland is the vegetation type with the widest coverage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Under the influence of multiple factors, such as global climate change and human activities, grassland is undergoing temporal and spatially different disturbances and changes, and they have a significant impact on the grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Therefore, timely and dynamic monitoring of grassland disturbances and distinguishing the reasons for the changes are essential for ecological understanding and management. The purpose of this research is to propose a knowledge-based strategy to realize grassland dynamic distribution mapping and analysis of grassland disturbance changes in the region that are suitable for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The purpose of this study is to propose an analysis algorithm that uses first annual mapping and then establishes temporal disturbance rules, which is applicable to the integrated exploration of disturbance changes in highland-type grasslands. The characteristic indexes of greenness and disturbance indices in the growing period were constructed and integrated with deep neural network learning to dynamically map the grassland for many years. The overall accuracy of grassland mapping was 94.11% and that of Kappa was 0.845. The results show that the area of grassland increased by 11.18% from 2001 to 2017. Then, the grassland disturbance change analysis method is proposed in monitoring the grassland distribution range, and it is found that the area of grassland with significant disturbance change accounts for 10.86% of the total area of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and the disturbance changes are specifically divided into seven types. Among them, the type of degradation after disturbance mainly occurs in Tibet, whereas the main types of vegetation greenness increase in Qinghai and Gansu. At the same time, the study finds that climate change, altitude, and human grazing activities are the main factors affecting grassland disturbance changes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and there are spatial differences.
Meconopsis punicea is an iconic ornamental and medicinal plant whose natural habitat has degraded under global climate change, posing a serious threat to the future survival of the species. Therefore, it is critical to analyze the influence of climate change on possible distribution of M. punicea for conservation and sustainable utilization of this species. In this study, we used MaxEnt ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution of M. punicea under current and future climate scenarios in the southeastern margin region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Model projections under current climate show that 16.8% of the study area is suitable habitat for Meconopsis. However, future projections indicate a sharp decline in potential habitat for 2050 and 2070 climate change scenarios. Soil type was the most important environmental variable in determining the habitat suitability of M. punicea, with 27.75% contribution to model output. Temperature seasonality (16.41%), precipitation of warmest quarter (14.01%), and precipitation of wettest month (13.02%), precipitation seasonality (9.41%) and annual temperature range (9.24%) also made significant contributions to model output. The mean elevation of suitable habitat for distribution of M. punicea is also likely to shift upward in most future climate change scenarios. This study provides vital information for the protection and sustainable use of medicinal species like M. punicea in the context of global environmental change. Our findings can aid in developing rational, broad-scale adaptation strategies for conservation and management for ecosystem services, in light of future climate changes.