plant pathogens
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Author(s):  
Hua Zheng ◽  
Zefen Yu ◽  
Xinwei Jiang ◽  
Linlin Fang ◽  
Min Qiao

Colletotrichum species are plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes in many economically important hosts. Many studies have investigated the diversity and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum species in common ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables. However, Colletotrichum species occurring in aquatic plants are not well known. During the investigation of the diversity of endophytic fungi in aquatic plants in southwest China, 66 Colletotrichum isolates were obtained from aquatic plants there, and 26 of them were selected for sequencing and analyses of actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and β-tubulin (TUB2) genomic regions. Based on morphological characterization and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, 13 Colletotrichum species were recognized, namely, C. baiyuense sp. nov., C. casaense sp. nov., C. demersi sp. nov., C. dianense sp. nov., C. fructicola, C. garzense sp. nov., C. jiangxiense, C. karstii, C. philoxeroidis sp. nov., C. spicati sp. nov., C. tengchongense sp. nov., C. vulgaris sp. nov., C. wuxuhaiense sp. nov. Two species complexes, the C. boninense species complex and C. gloeosporioides species complex, were found to be associated with aquatic plants. Pathogenicity tests revealed a broad diversity in pathogenicity and aggressiveness among the eight new Colletotrichum species.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 187
Author(s):  
Antoine Zboralski ◽  
Adrien Biessy ◽  
Martin Filion

Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are bacterial membrane-embedded nanomachines translocating effector proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They have been intensively studied for their important roles in animal and plant bacterial diseases. Over the past two decades, genome sequencing has unveiled their ubiquitous distribution in many taxa of Gram-negative bacteria, including plant-beneficial ones. Here, we discuss the distribution and functions of the T3SS in two agronomically important bacterial groups: the symbiotic nodule-forming nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and the free-living plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp. In legume-rhizobia symbiosis, T3SSs and their cognate effectors play important roles, including the modulation of the plant immune response and the initiation of the nodulation process in some cases. In plant-beneficial Pseudomonas spp., the roles of T3SSs are not fully understood, but pertain to plant immunity suppression, biocontrol against eukaryotic plant pathogens, mycorrhization facilitation, and possibly resistance against protist predation. The diversity of T3SSs in plant-beneficial bacteria points to their important roles in multifarious interkingdom interactions in the rhizosphere. We argue that the gap in research on T3SSs in plant-beneficial bacteria must be bridged to better understand bacteria/eukaryotes rhizosphere interactions and to support the development of efficient plant-growth promoting microbial inoculants.


Plant Methods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Cuihong Xu ◽  
Lingkun Zhong ◽  
Zeming Huang ◽  
Chenying Li ◽  
Jiazhang Lian ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most devastating bacterial plant pathogens, is the causal agent of bacterial wilt. Recently, several studies on resistance to bacterial wilt have been conducted using the Arabidopsis-R. solanacearum system. However, the progress of R. solanacearum infection in Arabidopsis is still unclear. Results We generated a bioluminescent R. solanacearum by expressing plasmid-based luxCDABE. Expression of luxCDABE did not alter the bacterial growth and pathogenicity. The light intensity of bioluminescent R. solanacearum was linearly related to bacterial concentrations from 104 to 108 CFU·mL−1. After root inoculation with bioluminescent R. solanacearum strain, light signals in tomato and Arabidopsis were found to be transported from roots to stems via the vasculature. Quantification of light intensity from the bioluminescent strain accurately reported the difference in disease resistance between Arabidopsis wild type and resistant mutants. Conclusions Bioluminescent R. solanacearum strain spatially and quantitatively measured bacterial growth in tomato and Arabidopsis, and offered a tool for the high-throughput study of R. solanacearum-Arabidopsis interaction in the future.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Valdinei Sofiatti ◽  
Odilon RRF Silva ◽  
Edson R Andrade Junior ◽  
Alexandre CB Ferreira ◽  
Fabiano J Perina ◽  
...  

The increase in geographical areas used for cultivation of transgenic glyphosate herbicide-resistant cotton has hindered the stalk destruction, compromised the phytosanitary break implementation and consequently increased the population of insect pests and cotton plant pathogens. This study evaluated the efficiency of the combining mechanical and chemical methods in the destruction of transgenic cotton stalk resistant to the glyphosate herbicide. Two experiments were carried out in 2015 and 2016 in Primavera do Leste,-Mato Grosso, Brazil and Luís Eduardo Magalhães, Bahia, Brazil, respectively. The study evaluated different mechanical destruction equipment in combination with the chemical methods. In each environment, a randomized block experiment with four replications was employed. The results of the experiments indicated that the mechanical destruction increased the control efficiency by at least 10% when compared to chemical destruction of the cotton stalk. Chemical destruction with herbicides combined with mechanical destruction methods does not increase the control efficiency of cotton stalks destruction. Furthermore, the application of hormonal herbicides following the mechanical shredding of cotton stalks does not increase the control efficiency of glyphosate-resistant cotton stalk.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
C Birnbaum ◽  
Jennifer Wood ◽  
Erik Lilleskov ◽  
Louis James Lamit ◽  
James Shannon ◽  
...  

Abstract Peatland ecosystems cover only 3 % of the world’s land area, however they store one-third of the global soil carbon (C). Peatlands play a central role in global C cycling as they contain more organic C than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Microbial communities are the main drivers of C decomposition in peatlands, yet we have limited knowledge of their structure and function. We investigated the vertical stratification of prokaryote and fungal communities from Wellington Plains peatland in the Australian Alps. Within the peatland complex, bog peat was sampled from the intact peatland and dried peat from the degraded peatland along a vertical soil depth gradient (i.e., acrotelm, mesotelm and catotelm). We analysed the prokaryote and fungal community structure, predicted functional profiles of prokaryotes using PICRUSt and assigned soil fungal guilds using FUNGuild. We found that the structure and the function of prokaryotes was vertically stratified in the intact bog. Carbon, manganese, nitrogen, lead and sodium best explained the prokaryote composition. Prokaryote richness was significantly higher in the intact bog acrotelm compared to degraded bog acrotelm. Fungal composition remained similar across the soil depth gradient, however there was a considerable increase in saprotroph abundance and decrease in endophyte abundance along the vertical soil depth gradient. The abundance of saprotrophs and plant pathogens was two-fold higher in the degraded bog acrotelm. Manganese, nitrogen, electrical conductivity and water table level (cm) best explained the fungal composition. Our results demonstrate that both fungal and prokaryote communities are shaped by soil abiotic factors and peatland degradation reduces microbial richness and alters microbial functions. Thus, current and future changes to the environmental conditions in these peatlands may lead to altered microbial community structure and associated functions which may have implications for broader ecosystem function changes in peatlands.


Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Author(s):  
Xiaohui Yang ◽  
Yu Hui ◽  
Daohong Zhu ◽  
Yang Zeng ◽  
Lvquan Zhao ◽  
...  

Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induces galls on chestnut trees, which results in massive yield losses worldwide. Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) is a host-specific parasitoid that phenologically synchronizes with D. kuriphilus. Bacteria play important roles in the life cycle of galling insects. The aim of this research is to investigate the bacterial communities and predominant bacteria of D. kuriphilus, T. sinensis, D. kuriphilus galls and the galled twigs of Castanea mollissima. We sequenced the V5–V7 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA in D. kuriphilus, T. sinensis, D. kuriphilus galls and galled twigs using high-throughput sequencing for the first time. We provide the first evidence that D. kuriphilus shares most bacterial species with T. sinensis, D. kuriphilus galls and galled twigs. The predominant bacteria of D. kuriphilus are Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. Furthermore, the bacterial community structures of D. kuriphilus and T. sinensis clearly differ from those of the other groups. Many species of the Serratia and Pseudomonas genera are plant pathogenic bacteria, and we suggest that D. kuriphilus may be a potential vector of plant pathogens. Furthermore, a total of 111 bacteria are common to D. kuriphilus adults, T. sinensis, D. kuriphilus galls and galled twigs, and we suggest that the bacteria may transmit horizontally among D. kuriphilus, T. sinensis, D. kuriphilus galls and galled twigs on the basis of their ecological associations.


Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 203
Author(s):  
Lizette Liliana Rodríguez-Verástegui ◽  
Candy Yuriria Ramírez-Zavaleta ◽  
María Fernanda Capilla-Hernández ◽  
Josefat Gregorio-Jorge

Trees and herbs that produce fruits represent the most valuable agricultural food commodities in the world. However, the yield of these crops is not fully achieved due to biotic factors such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Viruses are capable of causing alterations in plant growth and development, thereby impacting the yield of their hosts significantly. In this work, we first compiled the world′s most comprehensive list of known edible fruits that fits our definition. Then, plant viruses infecting those trees and herbs that produce fruits with commercial importance in the global market were identified. The identified plant viruses belong to 30 families, most of them containing single-stranded RNA genomes. Importantly, we show the overall picture of the host range for some virus families following an evolutionary approach. Further, the current knowledge about plant-virus interactions, focusing on the main disorders they cause, as well as yield losses, is summarized. Additionally, since accurate diagnosis methods are of pivotal importance for viral diseases control, the current and emerging technologies for the detection of these plant pathogens are described. Finally, the most promising strategies employed to control viral diseases in the field are presented, focusing on solutions that are long-lasting.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jian Chen ◽  
Rouhallah Sharifi ◽  
Muhammad Saad Shoaib Khan ◽  
Faisal Islam ◽  
Javaid Akhter Bhat ◽  
...  

Wheat is an important cereal crop species consumed globally. The growing global population demands a rapid and sustainable growth of agricultural systems. The development of genetically efficient wheat varieties has solved the global demand for wheat to a greater extent. The use of chemical substances for pathogen control and chemical fertilizers for enhanced agronomic traits also proved advantageous but at the cost of environmental health. An efficient alternative environment-friendly strategy would be the use of beneficial microorganisms growing on plants, which have the potential of controlling plant pathogens as well as enhancing the host plant’s water and mineral availability and absorption along with conferring tolerance to different stresses. Therefore, a thorough understanding of plant-microbe interaction, identification of beneficial microbes and their roles, and finally harnessing their beneficial functions to enhance sustainable agriculture without altering the environmental quality is appealing. The wheat microbiome shows prominent variations with the developmental stage, tissue type, environmental conditions, genotype, and age of the plant. A diverse array of bacterial and fungal classes, genera, and species was found to be associated with stems, leaves, roots, seeds, spikes, and rhizospheres, etc., which play a beneficial role in wheat. Harnessing the beneficial aspect of these microbes is a promising method for enhancing the performance of wheat under different environmental stresses. This review focuses on the microbiomes associated with wheat, their spatio-temporal dynamics, and their involvement in mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andong Gong ◽  
Gaozhan Wang ◽  
Yake Sun ◽  
Mengge Song ◽  
Cheelo Dimuna ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Soil fertility decline and pathogen infection are severe issues for crop production all over the world. Microbes as inherent factors in soil were effective in alleviating fertility decrease, promoting plant growth and controlling plant pathogens et al. Thus, screening microbes with fertility improving and pathogen controlling properties is of great importance to humans. Results Bacteria Pt-3 isolated from tea rhizosphere showed multiple functions in solubilizing insoluble phosphate, promoting plant growth, producing abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inhibiting the growth of important fungal pathogens in vitro. According to the 16S rRNA phylogenetic and biochemical analysis, Pt-3 was identified to be Serratia marcescens. The solubilizing zone of Pt-3 in the medium of lecithin and Ca3(PO4)2 was 2.1 cm and 1.8 cm respectively. In liquid medium and soil, the concentration of soluble phosphorus reached 343.9 mg.L− 1, and 3.98 mg.kg− 1, and significantly promoted the growth of maize seedling, respectively. Moreover, Pt-3 produced abundant volatiles and greatly inhibited the growth of seven important phytopathogens. The inhibition rate ranged from 75.51 to 100% respectively. Solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proved that the antifungal volatile was dimethyl disulfide. Dimethyl disulfide can inhibit the germination of Aspergillus flavus, and severely destroy the cell structures under scanning electron microscopy. Conclusions S. marcescens Pt-3 with multiple functions will provide novel agent for the production of bioactive fertilizer with P-solubilizing and fungal pathogens control activity.


Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Author(s):  
Benjamin D. Lee ◽  
Eugene V. Koonin

Viroids are a unique class of plant pathogens that consist of small circular RNA molecules, between 220 and 450 nucleotides in size. Viroids encode no proteins and are the smallest known infectious agents. Viroids replicate via the rolling circle mechanism, producing multimeric intermediates which are cleaved to unit length either by ribozymes formed from both polarities of the viroid genomic RNA or by coopted host RNAses. Many viroid-like small circular RNAs are satellites of plant RNA viruses. Ribozyviruses, represented by human hepatitis delta virus, are larger viroid-like circular RNAs that additionally encode the viral nucleocapsid protein. It has been proposed that viroids are direct descendants of primordial RNA replicons that were present in the hypothetical RNA world. We argue, however, that much later origin of viroids, possibly, from recently discovered mobile genetic elements known as retrozymes, is a far more parsimonious evolutionary scenario. Nevertheless, viroids and viroid-like circular RNAs are minimal replicators that are likely to be close to the theoretical lower limit of replicator size and arguably comprise the paradigm for replicator emergence. Thus, although viroid-like replicators are unlikely to be direct descendants of primordial RNA replicators, the study of the diversity and evolution of these ultimate genetic parasites can yield insights into the earliest stages of the evolution of life.


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