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Published By Mdpi Ag

2073-4425
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1944
Author(s):  
Shaoqi Shen ◽  
Yuxian Li ◽  
Jianyu Wang ◽  
Chendan Wei ◽  
Zhenyi Wang ◽  
...  

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the leading oil and food crop among the legume family. Extensive duplicate gene pairs generated from recursive polyploidizations with high sequence similarity could result from gene conversion, caused by illegitimate DNA recombination. Here, through synteny-based comparisons of two diploid and three tetraploid peanut genomes, we identified the duplicated genes generated from legume common tetraploidy (LCT) and peanut recent allo-tetraploidy (PRT) within genomes. In each peanut genome (or subgenomes), we inferred that 6.8–13.1% of LCT-related and 11.3–16.5% of PRT-related duplicates were affected by gene conversion, in which the LCT-related duplicates were the most affected by partial gene conversion, whereas the PRT-related duplicates were the most affected by whole gene conversion. Notably, we observed the conversion between duplicates as the long-lasting contribution of polyploidizations accelerated the divergence of different Arachis genomes. Moreover, we found that the converted duplicates are unevenly distributed across the chromosomes and are more often near the ends of the chromosomes in each genome. We also confirmed that well-preserved homoeologous chromosome regions may facilitate duplicates’ conversion. In addition, we found that these biological functions contain a higher number of preferentially converted genes, such as catalytic activity-related genes. We identified specific domains that are involved in converted genes, implying that conversions are associated with important traits of peanut growth and development.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1937
Author(s):  
Malgorzata Gabriela Wasniewska ◽  
Artur Bossowski

Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are characterized by a multifactorial etiology, in which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the loss of immunological tolerance [...]


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1932
Author(s):  
Laura Rojas-López ◽  
Sascha Krakovka ◽  
Elin Einarsson ◽  
Ulf Ribacke ◽  
Feifei Xu ◽  
...  

Giardia intestinalis is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes diarrheal infections worldwide. A key process to sustain its chain of transmission is the formation of infectious cysts in the encystation process. We combined deep RNAseq of a broad range of encystation timepoints to produce a high-resolution gene expression map of Giardia encystation. This detailed transcriptomic map of encystation confirmed a gradual change of gene expression along the time course of encystation, showing the most significant gene expression changes during late encystation. Few genes are differentially expressed early in encystation, but the major cyst wall proteins CWP-1 and -2 are highly up-regulated already after 3.5 h encystation. Several transcription factors are sequentially up-regulated throughout the process, but many up-regulated genes at 7, 10, and 14 h post-induction of encystation have binding sites in the upstream regions for the Myb2 transcription factor, suggesting that Myb2 is a master regulator of encystation. We observed major changes in gene expression of several meiotic-related genes from 10.5 h of encystation to the cyst stage, and at 17.5 h encystation, there are changes in many different metabolic pathways and protein synthesis. Late encystation, 21 h to cysts, show extensive gene expression changes, most of all in VSP and HCMP genes, which are involved in antigenic variation, and genes involved in chromatin modifications. This high-resolution gene expression map of Giardia encystation will be an important tool in further studies of this important differentiation process.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1933
Author(s):  
Marta Rubino ◽  
Alessandra Scatteia ◽  
Giulia Frisso ◽  
Giuseppe Pacileo ◽  
Martina Caiazza ◽  
...  

We describe the case of a young man with an initial diagnosis of acute myocarditis that was finally recognized as a familial left-dominant arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. The diagnostic process was also based on demonstration, serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and typical patterns of myocardial damage, including features of the disease’s inflammatory “hot phase”.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1936
Author(s):  
Benjamin P. Brookbank ◽  
Jasmin Patel ◽  
Sonia Gazzarrini ◽  
Eiji Nambara

Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates various aspects of plant physiology, including promoting seed dormancy and adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition, ABA plays an im-portant role in growth and development under non-stressed conditions. This review summarizes phenotypes of ABA biosynthesis and signaling mutants to clarify the roles of basal ABA in growth and development. The promotive and inhibitive actions of ABA in growth are characterized by stunted and enhanced growth of ABA-deficient and insensitive mutants, respectively. Growth regulation by ABA is both promotive and inhibitive, depending on the context, such as concentrations, tissues, and environmental conditions. Basal ABA regulates local growth including hyponastic growth, skotomorphogenesis and lateral root growth. At the cellular level, basal ABA is essential for proper chloroplast biogenesis, central metabolism, and expression of cell-cycle genes. Basal ABA also regulates epidermis development in the shoot, by inhibiting stomatal development, and deposition of hydrophobic polymers like a cuticular wax layer covering the leaf surface. In the root, basal ABA is involved in xylem differentiation and suberization of the endodermis. Hormone crosstalk plays key roles in growth and developmental processes regulated by ABA. Phenotypes of ABA-deficient and insensitive mutants indicate prominent functions of basal ABA in plant growth and development.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1939
Author(s):  
Andrew M. Clarke ◽  
Abigail K. Huffines ◽  
Yvonne J. K. Edwards ◽  
Chad M. Petit ◽  
David A. Schneider

Saccharomyces cerevisiae has approximately 200 copies of the 35S rDNA gene, arranged tandemly on chromosome XII. This gene is transcribed by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and the 35S rRNA transcript is processed to produce three of the four rRNAs required for ribosome biogenesis. An intergenic spacer (IGS) separates each copy of the 35S gene and contains the 5S rDNA gene, the origin of DNA replication, and the promoter for the adjacent 35S gene. Pol I is a 14-subunit enzyme responsible for the majority of rRNA synthesis, thereby sustaining normal cellular function and growth. The A12.2 subunit of Pol I plays a crucial role in cleavage, termination, and nucleotide addition during transcription. Deletion of this subunit causes alteration of nucleotide addition kinetics and read-through of transcription termination sites. To interrogate both of these phenomena, we performed native elongating transcript sequencing (NET-seq) with an rpa12Δ strain of S. cerevisiae and evaluated the resultant change in Pol I occupancy across the 35S gene and the IGS. Compared to wild-type (WT), we observed template sequence-specific changes in Pol I occupancy throughout the 35S gene. We also observed rpa12Δ Pol I occupancy downstream of both termination sites and throughout most of the IGS, including the 5S gene. Relative occupancy of rpa12Δ Pol I increased upstream of the promoter-proximal Reb1 binding site and dropped significantly downstream, implicating this site as a third terminator for Pol I transcription. Collectively, these high-resolution results indicate that the A12.2 subunit of Pol I plays an important role in transcription elongation and termination.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1941
Author(s):  
Kunyu Shi ◽  
Lele Yang ◽  
Xueqing Zhuang ◽  
Lan Zhang ◽  
Huayu Qi

cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling plays various roles during mammalian spermatogenesis, ranging from the regulation of gene expression to the modulation of sperm motility. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the multifaceted functions of PKA during spermatogenesis remain largely unclear. We previously found that PKA regulatory subunit I α (RIα) and catalytic subunit α (Cα) co-sediment with polyribosomal fractions of mouse testis lysate on sucrose gradient and the stimulation of PKA activity facilitates protein synthesis in post-meiotic elongating spermatids, indicating that type I PKA is intricately associated with protein translation machinery and regulates protein synthesis during mouse spermiogenesis. Since PKA activity is often regulated by interacting proteins that form complexes with its regulatory subunits, the identification of PKA-RIα interacting proteins in post-meiotic spermatogenic cells will facilitate our understanding of its regulatory roles in protein synthesis and spermiogenesis. In the present study, we applied a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify PKA-Riα-binding proteins using a cDNA library generated from mouse round and elongating spermatids. Numerous proteins were found to potentially interact with PKA-RIα, including proteostasis modulators, metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal regulators, and mitochondrial proteins, many of which are specifically expressed in testes. Consistently, the examination of MENA (mouse ENA/VASP homolog) in developing mouse testes suggested that post-meiotic spermatogenic cells express a short isoform of MENA that interacts with PKA-RIα in yeast two-hybrid assay. The identification of PKA-RIα interacting proteins provides us solid basis to further explore how PKA signaling regulates protein synthesis and cellular morphogenesis during mouse spermatogenesis.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1943
Author(s):  
Megan Phillips ◽  
Vaithinathan Selvaraju ◽  
Anna Fouty ◽  
Jeganathan Ramesh Babu ◽  
Maninder Sandey ◽  
...  

Copy number variants (CNVs) provide numerous genetic differences between individuals, and they have been linked with multiple human diseases. Obesity is one of the highly heritable complex disorders, which is associated with copy number variance (CNV). A recent report shows that the 11q11 gene, a novel olfactory receptor, and its copy number variants are involved in the early onset of obesity. In the current study, we analyzed the 11q11 gene copy number variance (CNV) based on gender in White/European American (EA) and African American (AA) normal weight and overweight/obese children. Sixty-nine boys and fifty-eight girls between the ages of 6 and 10 years belonging to either EA or AA ethnicity were involved in this study. As per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, each participant’s body weight and height were recorded. DNA was extracted from saliva, and the copy number variants for the 11q11 gene were measured using digital PCR. The descriptive analysis of the 11q11 copy number showed significantly more copies in girls compared to boys; similarly, AA participants had significantly increased CNV compared to EA. The normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) girls were significantly less likely to belong to the low copy number variant (LCNV) group of 11q11 compared to boys; similarly, NW and OW/OB AA children were significantly less likely to belong to the LCNV group. The AA girls in LCNV had significantly higher BMI z-scores. Our findings suggest that the 11q11 copy number in children is race and gender-specific.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1931
Author(s):  
Estefanía Tarazón ◽  
Blanca de Unamuno Bustos ◽  
Rosa Murria Estal ◽  
Gema Pérez Simó ◽  
Antonio Sahuquillo Torralba ◽  
...  

Recent evidence suggests the existence of a miRNA regulatory network involving human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT), with miR-138-5p playing a central role in many types of cancers. However, little is known about the regulation of hTERT expression by microRNA (miRNAs) in melanocytic tumors. Here, we investigated the effects of miR-138-5p in hTERT regulation in melanoma cells lines. In vitro studies demonstrated higher miR-138-5p and lower hTERT messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in human epidermal melanocytes, compared with melanoma cell lines (A2058, A375, SK-MEL-28) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) observing a negative correlation between them. A2058 melanoma cells were selected to be transfected with miR-138-5p mimic or inhibitor. Using luciferase assay, hTERT was identified as a direct target of this miRNA. Overexpression of miR-138-5p detected by Western blot revealed a decrease in hTERT protein expression (p = 0.012), and qPCR showed a reduction in telomerase activity (p < 0.001). Moreover, suppressions in cell growth (p = 0.035) and migration abilities (p = 0.015) were observed in A2058-transfected cells using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry, respectively. This study identifies miR-138-5p as a crucial tumor suppressor miRNA involved in telomerase regulation. Targeting it as a combination therapy with immunotherapy or targeted therapies could be used in advanced melanoma treatment; however, more preclinical studies are necessary.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1938
Author(s):  
Andrey V. Khrunin ◽  
Gennady V. Khvorykh ◽  
Alexandra V. Rozhkova ◽  
Evgeniya A. Koltsova ◽  
Elizaveta A. Petrova ◽  
...  

Although there has been great progress in understanding the genetic bases of ischemic stroke (IS), many of its aspects remain underexplored. These include the genetics of outcomes, as well as problems with the identification of real causative loci and their functional annotations. Therefore, analysis of the results obtained from animal models of brain ischemia could be helpful. We have developed a bioinformatic approach exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human orthologues of rat genes expressed differentially under conditions of induced brain ischemia. Using this approach, we identified and analyzed nine SNPs in 553 Russian individuals (331 patients with IS and 222 controls). We explored the association of SNPs with both IS outcomes and with the risk of IS. SNP rs66782529 (LGALS3) was associated with negative IS outcomes (p = 0.048). SNPs rs62278647 and rs2316710 (PTX3) were associated significantly with IS (p = 0.000029 and p = 0.0025, respectively). These correlations for rs62278647 and rs2316710 were found only in women, which suggests a sex-specific association of the PTX3 polymorphism. Thus, this research not only reveals some new genetic associations with IS and its outcomes but also shows how exploring variations in genes from a rat model of brain ischemia can be of use in searching for human genetic markers of this disorder.


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