Penaeus Monodon
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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
Aldi Huda Verdian ◽  
Pindo Witoko ◽  
Rahmadi Aziz

Salah satu terobosan untuk meningkatkan produksi udang adalah memanfaatkan laut dengan keramba jaring apung. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan komposisi kimia dari udang putih (Litopenaeus vannamei) dan daging udang windu (Penaeus monodon) yang dibudidayakan di keramba jaring apung. Hasil dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa daging udang putih memiliki kandungan protein dan abu yang lebih tinggi daripada daging udang windu. Komposisi langsung pada otot udang diatur oleh banyak faktor, termasuk spesies, tahap pertumbuhan, pakan dan musim.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1220
Md. Lifat Rahi ◽  
Khairun Naher Azad ◽  
Maliha Tabassum ◽  
Hasna Hena Irin ◽  
Kazi Sabbir Hossain ◽  

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors affecting growth, metabolism, immunity and survival of aquatic species in farming environments. As a euryhaline species, the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) can tolerate a wide range of salinity levels and is farmed between brackish to marine water conditions. The current study tested the effects of six different salinity levels (0‰, 2.5‰, 5‰, 10‰, 20‰ and 30‰) on the selected physiological, biochemical and genetic markers (individual changes in the expression pattern of selected candidate genes) in the black tiger shrimp. Experimental salinity levels significantly affected growth and survival performance (p < 0.05); the highest levels of growth and survival performance were observed at the control (20‰) salinity. Salinity reductions significantly increased free fatty acid (FFA), but reduced free amino acid (FAA) levels. Lower salinity treatments (0–10‰) significantly reduced hemolymph osmolality levels while 30‰ significantly increased osmolality levels. The five different salinity treatments increased the expression of osmoregulatory and hemolymph regulatory genes by 1.2–8-fold. In contrast, 1.2–1.6-fold lower expression levels were observed at the five salinity treatments for growth (alpha amylase) and immunity (toll-like receptor) genes. O2 consumption, glucose and serotonin levels, and expression of osmoregulatory genes showed rapid increase initially with salinity change, followed by reducing trend and stable patterns from the 5th day to the end. Hemocyte counts, expression of growth and immunity related genes showed initial decreasing trends, followed by an increasing trend and finally stability from 20th day to the end. Results indicate the farming potential of P. monodon at low salinity environments (possibly at freshwater) by proper acclimation prior to stocking with minimal effects on production performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100948
Minami Kawasaki ◽  
Ting Him Wallace Lo ◽  
Viviana Lazzarotto ◽  
Matthew Briggs ◽  
Richard P. Smullen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Roger Huerlimann ◽  
Jeff A Cowley ◽  
Nicholas M Wade ◽  
Yinan Wang ◽  
Naga Kasinadhuni ◽  

Shrimp are a valuable aquaculture species globally; however, disease remains a major hindrance to shrimp aquaculture sustainability and growth. Mechanisms mediated by endogenous viral elements (EVEs) have been proposed as a means by which shrimp that encounter a new virus start to accommodate rather than succumb to infection over time. However, evidence on the nature of such EVEs and how they mediate viral accommodation is limited. More extensive genomic data on Penaeid shrimp from different geographical locations should assist in exposing the diversity of EVEs. In this context, reported here is a PacBio Sequel-based draft genome assembly of an Australian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) inbred for one generation. The 1.89 Gbp draft genome is comprised of 31,922 scaffolds (N50: 496,398 bp) covering 85.9% of the projected genome size. The genome repeat content (61.8% with 30% representing simple sequence repeats) is almost the highest identified for any species. The functional annotation identified 35,517 gene models, of which 25,809 were protein-coding and 17,158 were annotated using interproscan. Scaffold scanning for specific EVEs identified an element comprised of a 9,045 bp stretch of repeated, inverted and jumbled genome fragments of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) bounded by a repeated 591/590 bp host sequence. As only near complete linear ~4 kb IHHNV genomes have been found integrated in the genome of P. monodon previously, its discovery has implications regarding the validity of PCR tests designed to specifically detect such linear EVE types. The existence of conjoined inverted IHHNV genome fragments also provides a means by which hairpin dsRNAs could be expressed and processed by the shrimp RNA interference (RNAi) machinery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Phaivit Laphyai ◽  
Thanapong Kruangkum ◽  
Charoonroj Chotwiwatthanakun ◽  
Wanita Semchuchot ◽  
Prawporn Thaijongrak ◽  

In this study, a novel Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone-type II gene (CHH-type II) was identified and biologically characterized in a shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Based on its structure and function, this gene was named P. monodon vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (PemVIH). The complete cDNA sequence of PemVIH consisted of 1,022 nt with an open reading frame (ORF) of 339 nt encoding a polypeptide of 112 amino acids. It was classified as a member of the CHH-type II family based on conserved cysteine residues, a characteristically positioned glycine residue, and the absence of CHH precursor-related peptide (CPRP) domain. The deduced mature PemVIH shared the highest sequence similarities with giant river prawn sinus gland peptide A. Unlike P. monodon gonad-inhibiting hormone (PemGIH), PemVIH was expressed only in the brain and ventral nerve cord, but not the eyestalks. Whole mount immunofluorescence using a newly generated PemVIH antiserum detected positive signals in neuronal cluster 9/11 and 17 of the brain, commissural ganglion (CoG), and neuronal clusters of ventral nerve cord. The presence of PemVIH-positive neurons in CoG, a part of stomatogastric nervous system, suggested a potential mechanism for crosstalk between nutritional and reproductive signaling. The role of PemVIH in vitellogenesis was evaluated using RNA interference technique. Temporal knockdown of PemVIH in female subadults resulted in a 3-fold increase in ovarian vitellogenin expression, suggesting an inhibitory role of PemVIH in vitellogenesis. This study provided novel insight into the control of vitellogenesis and additional strategies for improving ovarian maturation in P. monodon without the current harmful practice of eyestalk ablation.

B.N.A. Marasinghe ◽  
R.M.N.P. Rathnayake ◽  
R.D.R. Ranasinghe ◽  
A.A.G. Madurakanthi ◽  
W.S.M. Senevirathne

Aquaculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 737740
Pachaan Kolanchinathan ◽  
Padmanabhan Rathna Kumari ◽  
Krishnamoorthy Raja ◽  
George John ◽  
Athmanathan Balasundaram

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Virak Visudtiphole ◽  
Jutatip Khudet ◽  
Panomkorn Chaitongsakul ◽  
Siwat Plaisen ◽  
Jittima Siriwattano ◽  

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are essential for growth and health of larval marine animals. Marine animals have a limited capability for LC-PUFA synthesis, and the larvae must obtain LC-PUFAs from diet. The protist Aurantiochytrium limacinum (AL) is abundant in 22:6 n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), 22:5 n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid, DPA) and 16:0 fatty acids, which qualifies it as an LC-PUFA source for feed application. Therefore, in this study, a common feed containing lower amounts of total LC-PUFAs, Thalasiosira weissflogii, was replaced with AL at graded proportions and supplied to Penaeus monodon larvae from mysis (M) 1 to post-larval (PL) 2 stages to supplement LC-PUFAs in the diet. After that, all shrimp from PL2 to PL12 were continuously reared and subjected to the same diet regime, which was a combination of Artemia and commercial dried feed. The AL-supplemented PL2 shrimp demonstrated marked accumulation of the key fatty acids present in AL—16:0, DPA and DHA. The supplemented larvae showed no difference in growth during the supplementation period from M1 to PL2; however, average body weight and biomass were increased in PL12 shrimp that were fed earlier with AL. Lipidomic analysis revealed that profiles of fatty acids but not lipid classes/subclasses in PL shrimp reflected the supplied diet. The main saturated fatty acid (SFA, 16:0) predominantly accumulated in acylglycerols, which are energy-reserve lipids, in PL2 shrimp. Both LC-PUFAs (DHA and DPA) were preferentially deposited in phospholipids or structural lipids. Furthermore, while the amounts of both LC-PUFAs increased along with the amount of supplied AL, that of the SFA did not. This suggests that LC-PUFAs were prioritized to be stored over SFA when both types of fatty acids were present in high amounts. This analysis substantiates the importance of LC-PUFAs and provides an insight into how different types of the dietary fatty acids were differentially accumulated in lipid classes and subclasses for their biological functions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 53-63
Suryadi ◽  
Dewi Merdekawati

Udang yang potensial untuk dibudidayakan dalam tambak adalah Udang Windu (Penaeus monodon) dan Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei). Adapun keunggulan dari udang vaname ini yaitu tahan dari penyakit, pertumbuhannya yang cepat dengan masa pemeliharaannya relatif singkat kisaran 100-110 hari, sintasan selama pemeliharaan tinggi dan nilai konversi pakan (FCR) rendah (1:1,3). Tujuan penelitian yaitu mengevaluasi kinerja budidaya udang vaname, mengidentifikasi masalah dan rekomendasi usulan intervensi pada budidaya udang vaname, menganalisis pendapatan berkaitan dengan produktivitas budidaya untuk menegtahui tingkat keuntungan. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Maret – Mei 2021 di PT. Hasil Nusantara Mandiri Kelurahan Sungai Bulan Kecamatan Singkawang Utara. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik pendekatan deskriptif dengan mengamati indikator produktivitas, SR, FCR, dan kualitas air sebagai data pendukung, identifikasi masalah digunakan Root Cause Analysis dan Fishbone Analysis. Hasil menunjukan produktivitas yang di peroleh 24.233,48 kg yang mana terget perusahaan untuk 4 kolam yaitu 48.000 kg. Pendapatan atau keuntungan yaitu sebesar Rp. 106.199.842.

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