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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6698
Author(s):  
Arunaksharan Narayanankutty ◽  
Aswathi Moothakoottil Kuttithodi ◽  
Ahmed Alfarhan ◽  
Rajakrishnan Rajagopal ◽  
Damia Barcelo

Essential oils are biologically and environmentally safe pesticidal compounds yielded from aromatic plants. Spices are important sources of essential oils, and they are widely used in the medicine, food, and various other industries. Among the different spices, Allspice (Pimenta dioica) is underexplored in terms of its biological efficacy and a limited number of studies are available on the chemical composition of Allspice essential oil (AEO); thus, the present study evaluated the larvicidal property, the repellency, and the fumigant toxicity against common pests of stored products of AEO. AEO was found to inhibit the survival of larvae of such vectors as Aedis, Culex, and Armigeres species. Further, AEO was found to exert repellant effects against the pests of such stored products as Sitophilus, Callosobruchus, and Tribolium. Similarly, the fumigant toxicity was found to be high for AEO against these species. The contact toxicity of AEO was high against Sitophilus and Callosobruchus. Apart from that, the essential oil was found to be safe against a non-target organism (guppy fishes) and was found to be non-genotoxic in an Allium cepa model. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that the essential oil from Allspice could be used as an environmentally safe larvicidal and biopesticidal compound.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2352
Author(s):  
Anusha Pulavarty ◽  
Aoife Egan ◽  
Anna Karpinska ◽  
Karina Horgan ◽  
Thomais Kakouli-Duarte

Plant parasitic nematodes are a major problem for growers worldwide, causing severe crop losses. Several conventional strategies, such as chemical nematicides and biofumigation, have been employed in the past to manage their infection in plants and spread in soils. However, the search for the most sustainable and environmentally safe practices is still ongoing. This review summarises information on plant parasitic nematodes, their distribution, and their interaction with their host plants, along with various approaches to manage their infestations. It also focuses on the application of microbial and fermentation-based bionematicides that have not only been successful in controlling nematode infection but have also led to plant growth promotion and proven to be environmentally safe. Studies with new information on the relative abundance of plant parasitic nematodes in two agricultural sites in the Republic of Ireland are also reported. This review, with the information it provides, will help to generate an up-to-date knowledge base on plant parasitic nematodes and their management practices.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1173
Author(s):  
Uday Dave ◽  
Esther Somanader ◽  
Parnian Baharlouei ◽  
Linh Pham ◽  
M. Azizur Rahman

Chitin is a universal biopolymer that is found in microbes, plants, fungi, the exoskeleton of insects, various species of algae, and bottom-feeding crustaceans. This (1–4)-linked N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosamine polysaccharide can be readily processed with simple chemical procedures without putting a species at risk. Chitin has garnered interest as an alternative substance that can be used in the medical, environmental, and agricultural sectors. Indeed, chitin′s unique nature of biocompatibility, being environmentally safe, and having innate water-solubility allows the polymer to be used in a wide range of applications. In this review, we discuss the possible applications of chitin in the medical, environmental, and agricultural sectors through an extensive search of the latest literature. Moreover, the following review summarizes and explores the new and current studies surrounding the practical uses of chitin to solve issues that are commonly induced by various chemicals which are invasive to the surrounding environment and species co-existing in that area.


Author(s):  
A. Seitzhaparova ◽  

Environmental education and enlightenment should lead society to the greening of all types of activities, primarily managerial, technological, and entrepreneurial.But the most priority problem in the strategy of transition to a model of sustainable, environmentally safe development of civilization should still be considered the formation of a new type of person who is ready to implement these ideas and understands that this is necessary for the survival of mankind.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2033
Author(s):  
Mohadeseh Hassanisaadi ◽  
Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar ◽  
Abbas Rahdar ◽  
Sadanand Pandey ◽  
Akbar Hosseinipour ◽  
...  

Due to their simplicity of synthesis, stability, and functionalization, low toxicity, and ease of detection, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a natural choice for biomedical applications. AuNPs’ unique optoelectronic features have subsequently been investigated and used in high-tech applications such as organic photovoltaics, sensory probes, therapeutic agents, the administration of drugs in biological and medical applications, electronic devices, catalysis, etc. Researchers have demonstrated the biosynthesis of AuNPs using plants. The present study evaluates 109 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Middle East countries as new sources of AuNPs in a wide variety of laboratory environments. In this study, dried samples of bark, bulb, flower, fruit, gum, leaf, petiole, rhizome, root, seed, stamen, and above-ground parts were evaluated in water extracts. About 117 plant parts were screened from 109 species in 54 plant families, with 102 extracts demonstrating a bioreduction of Au3+ to Au0, revealing 37 new plant species in this regard. The color change of biosynthesized AuNPs to gray, violet, or red was confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, TEM, FSEM, DLS, and EDAX of six plants. In this study, AuNPs of various sizes were measured from 27 to 107 nm. This study also includes an evaluation of the potency of traditional East Asian medicinal plants used in this biosynthesis of AuNPs. An environmentally safe procedure such as this could act as a foundation for cosmetic industries whose quality assessment systems give a high priority to non-chemically synthesized products. It is crucial that future optimizations are adequately documented to scale up the described process.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 8777
Author(s):  
Fran Nekvapil ◽  
Iolanda-Veronica Ganea ◽  
Alexandra Ciorîță ◽  
Razvan Hirian ◽  
Sanja Tomšić ◽  
...  

Raw algae waste naturally thrown on shores could pose serious threats for landfilling and its reuse for composting or further processing as added-value by-products require knowledge-based decisions and management for the sustainable development of local ecosystems. Raw marine waste containing salt (halite) and heavy metals that eventually accumulate in algae hamper their safe applicability in soil fertilization or in other exploitations. Here, the suitability of algal biomass for use as an environmentally safe fertilizer was investigated, thereby supporting sustainable coastal management. The simple extraction of the dry algal biomass of three abundant Mediterranean species, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Corallina elongata, and Gelidium pulchellum, in water containing sodium carbonate resulted in a greenish extract containing a reduced heavy metals content, and nutrients such as K+, PO43−, SO42−, NO3−, Ca2+, and Mg2+. UV-Vis and Raman techniques, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), were employed for the fast evidencing of polyphenols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls in the extracts content, while E. intestinalis extract additionally exhibited polysaccharide signals. Heavy metals analysis showed that the major metals in the extracts were Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu; however, their levels were an order of magnitude lower than in the dry biomass. The extracts also showed a mild antibacterial effect. The combination option of aqueous extracts with powdered crustacean shells to obtain a novel, eco-friendly, solid biofertilizer complex was further shown, which could be pelleted for convenient use. The immersion of solid biofertilizer pellets in water is accompanied by re-solubilization of the compounds originating from algae extracts, presenting the opportunity for dry storage and easier handling and land applicability. In summary, aqueous extracts of marine algae waste present an environmentally safe and attractive way to recycle excessive algal biomass and to formulate a new, eco-friendly biofertilizer complex.


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