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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yalan Li ◽  
Jun Lu ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Peizhi Deng ◽  
Changjiang Meng ◽  

Background: Observational studies have revealed the association between some inflammatory cytokines and the occurrence of ischemic stroke, but the causal relationships remain unclear.Methods: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to assess the causal effects of thirty inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke. For exposure data, we collected genetic variants associated with inflammatory cytokines as instrumental variables (IVs) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis from Finland (sample size up to 8,293). For the outcome data, we collected summary data of ischemic stroke from a large-scale GWAS meta-analysis involved 17 studies (34,217 cases and 406,111 controls). We further performed a series of sensitivity analyses as validation of primary MR results.Results: According to the primary MR estimations and further sensitivity analyses, we established one robust association after Bonferroni correction: the odds ratio (95% CI) per unit change in genetically increased IL-4 was 0.84 (0.89–0.95) for ischemic stroke. The chemokine MCP3 showed a nominally significant association with ischemic stroke risk (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, unadjusted p < 0.05). There was no evidence of a causal effect of other inflammatory cytokines and the risk of ischemic stroke.Conclusions: Our study suggested that genetically increased IL-4 levels showed a protective effect on the risk of ischemic stroke, which provides important new insights into the potential therapeutic target for preventing ischemic stroke.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 212
Sunmin Park ◽  
Chaeyeon Kim ◽  
Xuangao Wu

Background: Insulin resistance is a common etiology of metabolic syndrome, but receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows a weak association in Koreans. Using a machine learning (ML) approach, we aimed to generate the best model for predicting insulin resistance in Korean adults aged > 40 of the Ansan/Ansung cohort using a machine learning (ML) approach. Methods: The demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, genetic, nutrient, and lifestyle variables of 8842 participants were included. The polygenetic risk scores (PRS) generated by a genome-wide association study were added to represent the genetic impact of insulin resistance. They were divided randomly into the training (n = 7037) and test (n = 1769) sets. Potentially important features were selected in the highest area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve from 99 features using seven different ML algorithms. The AUC target was ≥0.85 for the best prediction of insulin resistance with the lowest number of features. Results: The cutoff of insulin resistance defined with HOMA-IR was 2.31 using logistic regression before conducting ML. XGBoost and logistic regression algorithms generated the highest AUC (0.86) of the prediction models using 99 features, while the random forest algorithm generated a model with 0.82 AUC. These models showed high accuracy and k-fold values (>0.85). The prediction model containing 15 features had the highest AUC of the ROC curve in XGBoost and random forest algorithms. PRS was one of 15 features. The final prediction models for insulin resistance were generated with the same nine features in the XGBoost (AUC = 0.86), random forest (AUC = 0.84), and artificial neural network (AUC = 0.86) algorithms. The model included the fasting serum glucose, ALT, total bilirubin, HDL concentrations, waist circumference, body fat, pulse, season to enroll in the study, and gender. Conclusion: The liver function, regular pulse checking, and seasonal variation in addition to metabolic syndrome components should be considered to predict insulin resistance in Koreans aged over 40 years.

2022 ◽  
Suo Qiu ◽  
Lenxob Yong ◽  
Alstair Wilson ◽  
Darrren P Croft ◽  
Chay Graham ◽  

The guppy Y chromosome has been considered a model system for the evolution of suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes, and it has been proposed that complete sex-linkage has evolved across about 3 Mb surrounding the sex-determining locus of this fish, followed by recombination suppression across a further 7 Mb of the 23 Mb XY pair, forming younger evolutionary strata. Sequences of the guppy genome show that Y is very similar to the X chromosome, making it important to understand which parts of the Y are completely non-recombining, and whether there is indeed a large completely non-recombining region. Here, we describe new evidence that supports a different interpretation of the data that suggested the presence of such a region. We analysed PoolSeq data in samples from multiple natural populations from Trinidad. This yields evidence for linkage disequilibrium (LD) between sequence variants and the sex-determining locus. Downstream populations have higher diversity than upstream ones (which display the expected signs of bottlenecks). The associations we observe conform to predictions for a genome region with infrequent recombination that carries one or more sexually antagonistic polymorphisms. They also suggest the region in which the sex-determining locus must be located. However, no consistently male-specific variants were found, supporting the suggestion that any completely sex-linked region may be very small.

2022 ◽  
Astros Skuladottir ◽  
Gyda Bjornsdottir ◽  
Egil Ferkingstad ◽  
Gudmundur Einarsson ◽  
Lilja Stefansdottir ◽  

Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy and has a largely unknown underlying biology. In a genome-wide association study of CTS (Ncases = 48,843, Ncontrols = 1,190,837), we found 53 sequence variants at 50 loci that associate with the syndrome. The most significant association is with a missense variant (p.Glu366Lys) in SERPINA1 that protects against CTS (P = 2.9 × 10−24, OR = 0.76). Through various functional analyses, we conclude that at least 22 genes mediate CTS risk and highlight the role of 19 CTS variants in the biology of the extracellular matrix. We show that the genetic component to the risk is higher in recurrent/persistent cases than nonrecurrent/nonresistant cases. Anthropometric traits including height and BMI are genetically correlated with CTS, in addition to early hormonal-replacement therapy, osteoarthritis, and restlessness. Our findings suggest that the components of the extracellular matrix play a key role in the pathogenesis of CTS.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262569
Hafiz Ghulam Muhu-Din Ahmed ◽  
Muhammad Naeem ◽  
Yawen Zeng ◽  
Muhammad Abdul Rehman Rashid ◽  
Aziz Ullah ◽  

Dissecting the genetic basis of physiological and yield traits against tolerance to heat stress is an essential in wheat breeding programs to boost up the wheat yield for sustainable food security. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to reveal the genetic basis of heat tolerance using high-density Illumina 90K Infinium SNPs array through physiological and yield indices. These indices were phenotyped on a diverse panel of foreign and domestic genotypes of Pakistan, grown in normal and heat-stressed environments. Based on STRUCTURE analysis, the studied germplasm clustered into four sub-population. Highly significant variations with a range of moderate (58.3%) to high (77.8%) heritability was observed under both conditions. Strong positive correlation existed among physiological and yield related attributes. A total of 320 significant (-log10 P ≥ 3) marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for the observed characters. Out of them 169 and 151 MTAs were recorded in normal and heat stress environments, respectively. Among the MTA loci, three (RAC875_c103017_302, Tdurum_contig42087_1199, and Tdurum_contig46877_488 on chromosomes 4B, 6B, and 7B respectively), two (BobWhite_c836_422 and BS00010616_51) and three (Kukri_rep_c87210_361, D_GA8KES401BNLTU_253 and Tdurum_contig1015_131) on chromosomes 5A, 1B, and 3D at the positions 243.59cM, 77.82cM and 292.51cM) showed pleiotropic effects in studied traits under normal, heat-stressed and both conditions respectively. The present study not only authenticated the numerous previously reported MTAs for examined attributes but also revealed novel MTAs under heat-stressed conditions. Identified SNPs will be beneficial in determining the novel genes in wheat to develop the heat tolerant and best yielded genotypes to fulfill the wheat requirement for the growing population.

Sarah Vosgerau ◽  
Nina Krattenmacher ◽  
Clemens Falker-Gieske ◽  
Anita Seidel ◽  
Jens Tetens ◽  

Abstract  Reliability of genomic predictions is influenced by the size and genetic composition of the reference population. For German Warmblood horses, compilation of a reference population has been enabled through the cooperation of five German breeding associations. In this study, preliminary data from this joint reference population were used to genetically and genomically characterize withers height and to apply single-step methodology for estimating genomic breeding values for withers height. Using data on 2113 mares and their genomic information considering about 62,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), analysis of the genomic relationship revealed substructures reflecting breed origin and different breeding goals of the contributing breeding associations. A genome-wide association study confirmed a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) for withers height on equine chromosome (ECA) 3 close to LCORL and identified a further significant peak on ECA 1. Using a single-step approach with a combined relationship matrix, the estimated heritability for withers height was 0.31 (SE = 0.08) and the corresponding genomic breeding values ranged from − 2.94 to 2.96 cm. A mean reliability of 0.38 was realized for these breeding values. The analyses of withers height showed that compiling a reference population across breeds is a suitable strategy for German Warmblood horses. The single-step method is an appealing approach for practical genomic prediction in horses, because not many genotypes are available yet and animals without genotypes can by this way directly contribute to the estimation system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 183
Tourya Sagouti ◽  
Zineb Belabess ◽  
Naima Rhallabi ◽  
Essaid Ait Barka ◽  
Abdessalem Tahiri ◽  

Citrus stubborn was initially observed in California in 1915 and was later proven as a graft-transmissible disease in 1942. In the field, diseased citrus trees have compressed and stunted appearances, and yield poor-quality fruits with little market value. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-restricted pathogenic mollicute, which belongs to the Spiroplasmataceae family (Mollicutes). S. citri has the largest genome of any Mollicutes investigated, with a genome size of roughly 1780 Kbp. It is a helical, motile mollicute that lacks a cell wall and peptidoglycan. Several quick and sensitive molecular-based and immuno-enzymatic pathogen detection technologies are available. Infected weeds are the primary source of transmission to citrus, with only a minor percentage of transmission from infected citrus to citrus. Several phloem-feeding leafhopper species (Cicadellidae, Hemiptera) support the natural spread of S. citri in a persistent, propagative manner. S. citri-free buds are used in new orchard plantings and bud certification, and indexing initiatives have been launched. Further, a quarantine system for newly introduced types has been implemented to limit citrus stubborn disease (CSD). The present state of knowledge about CSD around the world is summarized in this overview, where recent advances in S. citri detection, characterization, control and eradication were highlighted to prevent or limit disease spread through the adoption of best practices.

Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Xinyi Hao ◽  
Bolei Jiao ◽  
Yunlei Wang ◽  
Boxing Shang ◽  
Yan Xu

Grapevine (Vitis spp.) is globally one of the most economically important fruit crops. China is the largest grapevine-growing country of the world and Shaanxi province is one of the major grapevine-growing provinces in the country. A survey of GLRaV-3 found it widespread, with 57–100% infection frequencies, in both wine and table grapevine cultivars of three grapevine-growing regions of Shaanxi province. The virus infection frequencies varied with cultivars and regions. In order to obtain the full genomic length of a new GLRaV-3 isolate, GLRaV-3-Sau (accession number MK988555), was sequenced. This isolate has a genome of 18026 nucleotides, and 14 open reading frames (ORFs). The full-genome of the isolate GLRaV-3-Sau shared 85.88% nucleotide identity to GLRaV-3-LN, another isolate found in China. Coat protein (CP) genes of GLRaV-3 isolates were identical (99%) to the Vitis vinifera isolate (accession number HQ185608.1) from the USA. Immunohistochemistry for virus localization found that distribution patterns were similar in red-berried cultivar ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and white-berried cultivar ‘Chardonnay’, and GLRaV-3 is restricted in phloem tissue of vascular bundles. Virus transmission by micrografting found virus transmission efficiency was higher in ‘Chardonnay’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ than in ‘Hunan-1’, indicating that ‘Hunan-1’ was less sensitive to GLRaV-3. As far as we know, these are the most comprehensive comparisons on the genome and CP genes of GLRaV-3 worldwide and the first to have found that the grapevine ‘Hunan-1’ is less susceptible to GLRaV-3.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Herbert F. Jelinek ◽  
Mira Mousa ◽  
Nawal Alkaabi ◽  
Eman Alefishat ◽  
Gihan Daw Elbait ◽  

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease severity differs widely due to numerous factors including ABO gene-derived susceptibility or resistance. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the ABO blood group and genetic variations of the ABO gene with COVID-19 severity in a heterogeneous hospital population sample from the United Arab Emirates, with the use of an epidemiological and candidate gene approach from a genome-wide association study (GWAS).Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 646 participants who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were recruited from multiple hospitals and population-based (quarantine camps) recruitment sites from March 2020 to February 2021. The participants were divided into two groups based on the severity of COVID-19: noncritical (n = 453) and critical [intensive care unit (ICU) patients] (n = 193), as per the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) classification. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the association of ABO blood type as well as circulating anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies as well as A and B antigens, in association with critical COVID-19 hospital presentation. A candidate gene analysis approach was conducted from a GWAS where we examined 240 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (position in chr9: 136125788-136150617) in the ABO gene, in association with critical COVID-19 hospital presentation.Results: Patients with blood group O [odds ratio (OR): 0.51 (0.33, 0.79); p = 0.003] were less likely to develop critical COVID-19 symptoms. Eight alleles have been identified to be associated with a protective effect of blood group O in ABO 3'untranslated region (UTR): rs199969472 (p = 0.0052), rs34266669 (p = 0.0052), rs76700116 (p = 0.0052), rs7849280 (p = 0.0052), rs34039247 (p = 0.0104), rs10901251 (p = 0.0165), rs9411475 (p = 0.0377), and rs13291798 (p = 0.0377).Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there are novel allelic variants that link genetic variants of the ABO gene and ABO blood groups contributing to the reduced risk of critical COVID-19 disease. This study is the first study to combine genetic and serological evidence of the involvement of the ABO blood groups and the ABO gene allelic associations with COVID-19 severity within the Middle Eastern population.

Fabai Wu ◽  
Daan R. Speth ◽  
Alon Philosof ◽  
Antoine Crémière ◽  
Aditi Narayanan ◽  

AbstractEukaryotic genomes are known to have garnered innovations from both archaeal and bacterial domains but the sequence of events that led to the complex gene repertoire of eukaryotes is largely unresolved. Here, through the enrichment of hydrothermal vent microorganisms, we recovered two circularized genomes of Heimdallarchaeum species that belong to an Asgard archaea clade phylogenetically closest to eukaryotes. These genomes reveal diverse mobile elements, including an integrative viral genome that bidirectionally replicates in a circular form and aloposons, transposons that encode the 5,000 amino acid-sized proteins Otus and Ephialtes. Heimdallaechaeal mobile elements have garnered various genes from bacteria and bacteriophages, likely playing a role in shuffling functions across domains. The number of archaea- and bacteria-related genes follow strikingly different scaling laws in Asgard archaea, exhibiting a genome size-dependent ratio and a functional division resembling the bacteria- and archaea-derived gene repertoire across eukaryotes. Bacterial gene import has thus likely been a continuous process unaltered by eukaryogenesis and scaled up through genome expansion. Our data further highlight the importance of viewing eukaryogenesis in a pan-Asgard context, which led to the proposal of a conceptual framework, that is, the Heimdall nucleation–decentralized innovation–hierarchical import model that accounts for the emergence of eukaryotic complexity.

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