The Effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2)/Estrogen Composite Nanoparticles on the Differentiation Function of Osteoporotic Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 978-983
Shengdi Ding ◽  
Shitong Xing ◽  
Zhanfeng Zhang ◽  
Zhenguo Sun ◽  
Xiaojie Dou ◽  

The menopausal hormone abnormal changes such as estrogen deficiency and increased FSH secretion in female patients in old age may cause osteoporosis which is plagued by patients. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is not yet fully understood. BMP in the transforming growth factor-β superfamily is a key member in the process of bone growth and development, among which BMP-2 exerts critical roles. Impaired osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) contributes to the progress of osteoporosis. BMSC plays an indispensable role in treating osteoporosis and can develop into different directions through induction. As the regenerative medicine nanotechnology has become a new medical method, it is believed that BMSC can be used to treat osteoporosis and other related diseases. Our study analyzed the effects of BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoporotic BMSC cells to provide a reliable reference for the future treatment. Our results showed that BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles promoted BMSC cell proliferation, increased ALP activity, decreased apoptosis rate, increased the expression of Col-1, Runx2 and Osterix, upregulated the osteogenic marker BMP-2. As confirmed by Alizarin Red staining, it could differentiate into osteoblasts and the content of Trap was decreased. In conclusion, our study confirms that BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles can promote BMSC cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, thereby providing new treatments and theoretical reference basis for treating osteoporosis.

2021 ◽  
Gaoying Ran ◽  
Wei Fang ◽  
Lifang Zhang ◽  
Yuting Peng ◽  
Jiatong Li ◽  

Objectives: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) both promote osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). IGF-1C, the C domain peptide of IGF-1, and P24, a BMP-2-derived peptide, both have similar biological activities as their parent growth factors. This study aimed to investigate the effects and their mechanisms of polypeptides IGF-1C and P24 on the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Methods: The optimum concentrations of IGF-IC and P24 were explored. The effects of the two polypeptides on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs were examined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity assay, alizarin red S staining, qPCR, and western blotting. In addition, specific pathway inhibitors were utilized to explore whether p38 and JNK pathways were involved in this process. Results: The optimal concentrations of action were both 50 g/ml. IGF-1C and P24 synergistically promoted the proliferation of BMSCs, increased ALP activity and the formation of calcified nodules and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of osterix (Osx), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (Ocn), phosphorylation level of p38 and JNK proteins also improved. Inhibition of the pathways significantly reduced the activation of p38 and JNK, blocked the expression of Runx2 while inhibiting ALP activity and the formation of calcified nodules. Conclusions: These findings suggest IGF-1C and P24 synergistically promote the osteogenesis of BMSCs through activation of p38 and JNK signal pathways.

2021 ◽  
Fariba Sadraei ◽  
Marzieh Ghollasi ◽  
Fatemeh Khakpai ◽  
Raheleh Halabian

Abstract Background: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (MSCs) cells are undifferentiated cells with the self-renewing ability and multi-lineage differentiation beneficial for regenerative medicine. Nano scaffolds are novel materials employed in bone repair and regeneration. Nisin is a prebiotic that can increase stem cells’ life span and proliferation. This study attempted to provide a proper strategy for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into the Osteocytes on a Poly‐L‐lactic‐acid scaffold (PLLA) after pretreating with probiotic Nisin. Methods: MSC osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by measuring Calcium, Alkaline phosphatase, and quantitative tests such as Real-Time PCR, Acridine Orange, Alizarin Red, Von Kossa, and others. Results: The result of the MTT test showed that the optimal dose of Nisin probiotic for the MSCs’ preconditioning was 200 IU/mL on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th days of culture. Real-time PCR data indicated that the expression rate of ALP, Osteonectin, Osteocalcin, and Collagen I have increased in the presence of Nisin, while the RUNX-2 gene expression has decreased. Furthermore, the results of Alizarin Red and Von Kossa tests, as well as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), revealed that the cell proliferation in the preconditioned samples with Nisin increased significantly. Conclusions: The study concluded that the cell proliferation and differentiation increased in samples pretreated with Nisin on the PLLA Nano scaffolds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ming Chen ◽  
Hui Han ◽  
Siqi Zhou ◽  
Yinxian Wen ◽  
Liaobin Chen

Abstract Background Osteoporosis (OP) is a metabolic bone disease due to the imbalance of osteogenesis and bone resorption, in which, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have a significant effect as the seed cells. Recent research has shown the function of Morusin on inhibiting osteoclast differentiation in vitro. However, whether Morusin can regulate the osteogenic differentiation in addition to the proliferation of BMSCs remains unclear. Methods BMSCs were isolated from 4-week-old Wistar rats and then treated with different concentrations of Morusin for 3, 5, 7, and 14 days. The proliferation of BMSCs was detected by MTT assay. The effect of Morusin on osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was detected by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, ALP, and Alizarin Red staining. The effect of Morusin on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was analyzed by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence. Finally, in the ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model, the anti-osteoporosis activity of Morusin was determined by micro-CT, HE, and immunohistochemistry. Results The results showed the function of 2.5–10 μM Morusin in the promotion of the proliferation in addition to osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Moreover, it also has an impact in activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via inhibition of β-catenin phosphorylation as well as promotion of its nuclear translocation. Upon Dickkopf-related protein-1 (DKK-1, an inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway) was added to the Morusin, Morusin had a decreased stimulatory osteogenic effect on BMSCs. Finally, in the rat OP model, we found that Morusin could also exert anti-osteoporosis activity in vivo. Conclusions This study indicates the ability of Morusin in the promotion of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and also shows the potential of Morusin to be an agent for osteoporosis treatment.

2020 ◽  
Shuting Jiang ◽  
Hongyan Liu ◽  
Weiyan Zhu ◽  
Hui Yan ◽  
Beizhan Yan

Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation gradually become a potential treatment for bone defect in clinic practice. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PRP and autophagy for osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods Thrombin activated PRP was prepared and the BMSCs were treated with activated PRP with different concentration and transfected with miR-140-3p vector (mimics or inhibitor), si-SPRED2 or co-transfected with miR-140-3p inhibitor and si-SPRED2, respectively. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA expression and protein expression. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to identified the targeting relationship between iR-140-3p and SPRED2 Subsequently, cell proliferation was detected by MTT and ALP activity was also determined. Alizarin red staining was used for the evaluating the formation of calcium nodules. Results MiR-140-3p expression was found to be inhibited by PRP in a dose-dependent manner, besides, cell proliferation, ALP activity, the expression of COL-I, OPN, Runx2 and OCN, and the formation of calcium nodules related to osteogenic differentiation were enhanced by PRP. Subsequently, we found that PRP activated autophagy and up-regulated SPRED2 expression in BMSCs through suppressing miR-140-3p expression. Moreover, we confirmed that miR-140-3p targeted SPRED2 and negatively regulation its expression. Finally, the findings showed that inhibition of miR-140-3p enhanced cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and autophagy of BMSCs by negatively regulating SPRED2 expression. Conclusion Thrombin activated PRP accelerated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by activing autophagy through miR-140-3p/SPRED2 axis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 794-799
Le Chang ◽  
Wei Duan ◽  
Chuang Wang ◽  
Jian Zhang

This study was to determine whether microRNA (miRNA)-126 regulates osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Rat BMSCs were extracted and stimulated for osteogenic differentiation. Functional experiments were conducted to assess miR-126’s impact on BMSCs differentiation. Western blot and RT-qPCR determined miR-126 expression. ALP activity detection and alizarin red staining detection were also performed. After osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, miR-126 expression was gradually decreased over time. Overexpression of miR-26 decreased ALP activity, Notch signaling activity as well as declined Runx2 expression and calcium Salt nodules after treatment. Importantly, we found that Smad4 serves as a target of miR-126 while upregulation of the miRNA was accompanied with the decreased Smad4 protein expression without affecting the Smad4 mRNA level. In conclusion, miR-126 restrains osteogenic differentiation through inhibition of SMAD4 signaling, providing a novel insight into the mechanism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 957-962
Ainiwaerjiang Damaola ◽  
Maerdan Aierken ◽  
Mieralimu Muertizha ◽  
Abudouaini Abudoureheman ◽  
Haishan Lin ◽  

We aimed to explore the effects of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on osteogenic differentiation via analyzing miR-3148 expression in patients with osteoporosis. Realtime quantitative PCR was conducted for assessing microRNA-3148 expression. BMSCs from SD rats were transfected with microRNA-3148 mimics and microRNA-3148 inhibitor via liposomal trans-fection method utilizing Lipo2000, followed by analysis of microRNA-3148 level. After 10-days of osteogenic differentiation induction, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red (ARS) staining were done to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential. Simultaneously, qRT-PCR measured the expression of osteogenesis marker genes (BMP and Runx2) in each group. qRT-PCR analysis revealed a high expression of miR-3148 in the bone tissue and the serum samples from patients with osteoporosis in comparison with healthy individuals. In addition, miRNA-3148 mimics could retard the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, while microRNA-3148 inhibitor could prompt the procedure. MicroRNA-3148 was highly expressed in the skeletal tissues and the serum samples from patients with osteoporosis and it could restrain the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblasts, suggesting that it might be a novel therapeutic target for treating osteoporosis.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 868-873
Shengxiang Huang ◽  
Haibo Mei ◽  
Rongguo He ◽  
Kun Liu ◽  
Jin Tang ◽  

The α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) regulates bone metabolism and has potential applications in enhancing bone remodeling in vivo. However, α-CGRP's role in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. Rat BMSCs were separated into control group, α-CGRP group and α-CGRP siRNA group, in which BMSCs were transfected with α-CGRP plasmid and α-CGRP siRNA respectively followed by analysis of α-CGRP level by real time PCR and ELISA, cell proliferation by MTT assay, Caspase 3 activity, ALP activity, formation of calcified nodules by alizarin red staining, Smad1 and Smad7 level by Western blot and Runx2 by real time PCR. αCGRP transfection into BMSCs significantly up-regulated CGRP, which could promote cell proliferation, inhibit Caspase 3 activity, promote ALP activity, increase calcified nodules formation and upregulate Smad1, Smad7 and Runx2 compared to control (P < 0.05); transfection of αCGRP siRNA significantly down-regulated CGRP in BMSCs, inhibited cell proliferation, promoted Caspase 3 activity, inhibited ALP activity, inhibited calcified nodules formation and downregulate Smad1, Smad7 and Runx2 (P < 0.05). αCGRP overexpression promotes the Smad/Runx2 signaling, which in turn promotes BMSCs proliferation and osteogenesis. Decreased αCGRP level inhibits Smad/Runx2 signaling, promotes BMSCs apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.

2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1429-1434
Qing Yang ◽  
Cheng Li ◽  
Manli Yan ◽  
Chunhua Fang

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated into different types of cells. SOX9 involves in the development and progression of various diseases. Our study aims to assess SOX9's effect on osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and its related regulatory mechanisms. Rat BMSCs were isolated and randomly divided into control group, SOX9 group and SOX9 siRNA group, which was transfected with pcDNA-SOX9 plasmid or SOX9 siRNA respectively followed by analysis of SOX9 expression by Real time PCR, cell proliferation by MTT assay, Caspase3 and ALP activity, GSK-3β expression and Wntβ/Catenin Signaling pathway protein expression by Western blot, and expression of osteogenic genes Runx2 and BMP-2 by Real time PCR. Transfection of pcDNA-SOX9 plasmid into BMSCs significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted Caspase3 activity, decreased ALP activity and downregulated Runx2 and BMP-2, increased GSK-3β expression and decreased Wntβ/Catenin expression protein expression (P< 0.05). SOX9 siRNA transfection significantly promoted cell proliferation, inhibited Caspase3 activity, increased ALP activity and upregulated Runx2 and BMP-2, downregulated GSK-3β and increased Wntβ/Catenin expression. SOX9 regulates BMSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation through Wntβ/Catenin signaling pathway.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e11251
Zhaowei Teng ◽  
Yun Zhu ◽  
Qinggang Hao ◽  
Xiaochao Yu ◽  
Yirong Teng ◽  

Background With aging, an imbalance in bone remodeling leading to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation is thought to contribute to osteoporosis. Osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of osteoporosis remain incompletely understood. Given that long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (lnc TUG1) plays a critical role in the osteogenic differentiation, and microRNA-23b (miR-23b) as a putative sponge for lnc TUG1 has upregulated expression in osteoporosis. Therefore, this study investigated the roles of TUG1/miR-23b in osteoporotic pathology. Material and Methods TUG1 and miR-23b expression in the plasma of osteoporotic patients were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The osteogenic differentiation in human BMMSCs was evaluated by qRT-PCR, western blot, Alizarin red staining after knockdown of TUG1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment. Results Decreased expression of TUG1 and increased expression of miR-23b evident in the plasma of patients with osteoporosis than in that of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Additionally, increased miR-23b expression inhibited runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteocalcin, and osteopontin expression and reduced calcified nodule formation based on the results of qRT-PCR, western blot, and Alizarin Red S staining. Conclusion The study for the first time reported that silence of lncRNA TUG1 significantly suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs possibly by targeting the miR-23b/RUNX2 signaling pathway. This mechanism of TUG1/miR-23b/RUNX2 signaling within the osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs might provide new insight for the development of lncRNA-directed diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for osteoporosis.

2007 ◽  
Vol 361-363 ◽  
pp. 1173-1176
Jun Wang ◽  
Yu Bo Fan ◽  
Zhi He Zhao ◽  
Juan Li ◽  
Jun Liu

Osteoblasts were perceived as pivotal cells, recognized as the cells that control both the formative and the resorptive phases of the bone remodeling cycle. Osteoblasts were an essential requirement for osteoclastogenesis though expressing or secreating bioactive osteoclast-differentiation-regulatory proteins, osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF)was the most important factor among these, ODF participate nearly in every step of differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. In addition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)and its receptors LFA-1 play a role in osteoclast development by affecting adhesion between stromal cells and osteoclast progenitors before the occurrence of ODF-ODF receptor signaling. However, it is not clear about the relationship between ODF, ICAM-1 expression of osteoblasts and differentiation state of osteoblasts. So,the aim of this study was to investgate whether the expression of ODF, ICAM-1 depended on the stage of osteoblastic differentiation from rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(rBMSCs). The viability of rBMSCs is reduced significantly by osteogenic inducement as differentiating into osteoblasts, ALPase activity of OS-treated rBMSCs was enhanced obviously within 9 days , declined subsequently and recovered nearly the original level at day 14. Expression of ODF is enhanced with osteogenic differentiation guadully. whereas, expression of ICAM-1 is activated at OS-treated day 6, then keeping at a stable level. This study indicated that rBMSCs undergoing osteogenic inducement was an ideal model for studying the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts. During the early stage of differentiation along osteoblasts from stem cells to osteocytes, rBMSCs or Osteoprogenitor react somewhat differently from osteoblasts, suggesting the ability of osteoblasts to regulating differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts have been improved with osteogenic culture.

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