nuclear translocation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yanhui Tan ◽  
Minhong Ke ◽  
Zhichao Li ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Jiehuang Zheng ◽  

It is a viable strategy to inhibit osteoclast differentiation for the treatment of osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastases. Here we assessed the effects of insulicolide A, a natural nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoid derived from marine fungus, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and its protective effects on LPS-induced osteolysis mice model in vivo. The results demonstrated that insulicolide A inhibited osteoclastogenesis from 1 μM in vitro. Insulicolide A could prevent c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) nuclear translocation and attenuate the expression levels of osteoclast-related genes and DC-STAMP during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis but have no effects on NF-κB and MAPKs. Insulicolide A can also protect the mice from LPS-induced osteolysis. Our research provides the first evidence that insulicolide A may inhibit osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and indicates that it may have potential for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 940
René St-Arnaud ◽  
Martin Pellicelli ◽  
Mahmoud Ismail ◽  
Alice Arabian ◽  
Toghrul Jafarov ◽  

PTH induces phosphorylation of the transcriptional coregulator NACA on serine 99 through Gαs and PKA. This leads to nuclear translocation of NACA and expression of the target gene Lrp6, encoding a coreceptor of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) necessary for full anabolic response to intermittent PTH (iPTH) treatment. We hypothesized that maintaining enough functional PTH1R/LRP6 coreceptor complexes at the plasma membrane through NACA-dependent Lrp6 transcription is important to ensure maximal response to iPTH. To test this model, we generated compound heterozygous mice in which one allele each of Naca and Lrp6 is inactivated in osteoblasts and osteocytes, using a knock-in strain with a Naca99 Ser-to-Ala mutation and an Lrp6 floxed strain (test genotype: Naca99S/A; Lrp6+/fl;OCN-Cre). Four-month-old females were injected with vehicle or 100 μg/kg PTH(1-34) once daily, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Control mice showed significant increases in vertebral trabecular bone mass and biomechanical properties that were abolished in compound heterozygotes. Lrp6 expression was reduced in compound heterozygotes vs. controls. The iPTH treatment increased Alpl and Col1a1 mRNA levels in the control but not in the test group. These results confirm that NACA and LRP6 form part of a common genetic pathway that is necessary for the full anabolic effect of iPTH.

2022 ◽  
LaNisha L. Patterson ◽  
Thangam Sudha Velayutham ◽  
Caitlan D. Byerly ◽  
Duc Cuong Bui ◽  
Jignesh Patel ◽  

Ehrlichia chaffeensis evades innate host defenses by reprogramming the mononuclear phagocyte through mechanisms that involve exploitation of multiple evolutionarily conserved cellular signaling pathways including Notch. This immune evasion strategy is directed in part by tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors. Specifically, the TRP120 effector activates and regulates Notch signaling through interactions with the Notch receptor and the negative regulator, F-Box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBW7). However, the specific molecular interactions and motifs required for E. chaffeensis TRP120-Notch receptor interaction and activation have not been defined. To investigate the molecular basis of TRP120 Notch activation, we compared TRP120 with endogenous canonical/non-canonical Notch ligands and identified a short region of sequence homology within the tandem repeat (TR) domain. TRP120 was predicted to share biological function with Notch ligands, and a function-associated sequence in the TR domain was identified. To investigate TRP120-Notch receptor interactions, colocalization between TRP120 and endogenous Notch-1 was observed. Moreover, direct interactions between full length TRP120, the TRP120 TR domain containing the putative Notch ligand sequence, and the Notch receptor LBR were demonstrated. To molecularly define the TRP120 Notch activation motif, peptide mapping was used to identify an 11-amino acid short linear motif (SLiM) located within the TRP120 TR that activated Notch signaling and downstream gene expression. Peptide mutants of the Notch SLiM or anti-Notch SLiM antibody reduced or eliminated Notch activation and NICD nuclear translocation. This investigation reveals a novel molecularly defined pathogen encoded Notch SLiM mimetic that activates Notch signaling consistent with endogenous ligands.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ni An ◽  
Zhenjie Li ◽  
Xiaodi Yan ◽  
Hainan Zhao ◽  
Yajie Yang ◽  

AbstractThe lung is one of the most sensitive tissues to ionizing radiation, thus, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) stays a key dose-limiting factor of thoracic radiotherapy. However, there is still little progress in the effective treatment of RILI. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1, Rac1, is a small guanosine triphosphatases involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Thus, Rac1 may be an important molecule that mediates radiation damage, inhibition of which may produce a protective effect on RILI. By establishing a mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury and orthotopic lung tumor-bearing mouse model, we detected the role of Rac1 inhibition in the protection of RILI and suppression of lung tumor. The results showed that ionizing radiation induces the nuclear translocation of Rac1, the latter then promotes nuclear translocation of P53 and prolongs the residence time of p53 in the nucleus, thereby promoting the transcription of Trp53inp1 which mediates p53-dependent apoptosis. Inhibition of Rac1 significantly reduce the apoptosis of normal lung epithelial cells, thereby effectively alleviating RILI. On the other hand, inhibition of Rac1 could also significantly inhibit the growth of lung tumor, increase the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells. These differential effects of Rac1 inhibition were related to the mutation and overexpression of Rac1 in tumor cells.

2022 ◽  
Jack A Prescott ◽  
Kathryn Balmanno ◽  
Jennifer P Mitchell ◽  
Hanneke Okkenhaug ◽  
Simon J Cook

Inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) has long been viewed as the dominant IKK in the canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling pathway, with IKKα being more important in non-canonical NF-κB activation. Here we have investigated the role of IKKα and IKKβ in canonical NF-κB activation in colorectal cells using CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out cell lines, siRNA and selective IKKβ inhibitors. IKKα and IKKβ were redundant for IκBα phosphorylation and turnover since loss of IKKα or IKKβ alone had little (SW620 cells) or no (HCT116 cells) effect. However, in HCT116 cells IKKα was the dominant IKK required for basal phosphorylation of p65 at S536, stimulated phosphorylation of p65 at S468, nuclear translocation of p65 and the NF-κB-dependent transcriptional response to both TNFα and IL-1α. In these cells IKKβ was far less efficient at compensating for the loss of IKKα than IKKα was able to compensate for the loss of IKKβ. This was confirmed when siRNA was used to knock-down the non-targeted kinase in single KO cells. Critically, the selective IKKβ inhibitor BIX02514 confirmed these observations in WT cells and similar results were seen in SW620 cells. Notably, whilst IKKα loss strongly inhibited TNFα-dependent p65 nuclear translocation, IKKα and IKKβ contributed equally to c-Rel nuclear translocation indicating that different NF-κB subunits exhibit different dependencies on these IKKs. These results demonstrate a major role for IKKα in canonical NF-κB signalling in colorectal cells and may be relevant to efforts to design IKK inhibitors, which have focused largely on IKKβ to date.

Chenglong Xie ◽  
Yifeng Shi ◽  
Zuoxi Chen ◽  
Xin Zhou ◽  
Peng Luo ◽  

Oxidative stress–induced apoptosis and senescence of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells play a crucial role in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Accumulation of studies has shown that activated autophagy and enhanced autophagic flux can alleviate IVDD. In this study, we explored the effects of apigenin on IVDD in vitro and in vivo. Apigenin was found to inhibit tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)–induced apoptosis, senescence, and ECM degradation in NP cells. In addition, apigenin treatment can restore the autophagic flux blockage caused by TBHP. Mechanistically, we found that TBHP may induce autophagosome and lysosome fusion interruption and lysosomal dysfunction, while apigenin alleviates these phenomena by promoting the nuclear translocation of TFEB via the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, apigenin also exerts a protective effect against the progression of IVDD in the puncture-induced rat model. Taken together, these findings indicate that apigenin protects NP cells against TBHP-induced apoptosis, senescence, and ECM degradation via restoration of autophagic flux in vitro, and it also ameliorates IVDD progression in rats in vivo, demonstrating its potential for serving as an effective therapeutic agent for IVDD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Tiziana Petrozziello ◽  
Francesca Boscia ◽  
Valentina Tedeschi ◽  
Anna Pannaccione ◽  
Valeria de Rosa ◽  

Abstract Background The cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-l-alanine (L-BMAA), one of the environmental trigger factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), may cause neurodegeneration by disrupting organellar Ca2+ homeostasis. Through the activation of Akt/ERK1/2 pathway, the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and its non-metallated form, ApoSOD1, prevent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death in motor neurons exposed to L-BMAA. This occurs through the rapid increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in part flowing from the extracellular compartment and in part released from ER. However, the molecular components of this mechanism remain uncharacterized. Methods By an integrated approach consisting on the use of siRNA strategy, Western blotting, confocal double- labeling immunofluorescence, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and Fura 2-/SBFI-single-cell imaging, we explored in rat motor neuron-enriched cultures the involvement of the plasma membrane proteins Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and purinergic P2X7 receptor as well as that of the intracellular cADP-ribose (cADPR) pathway, in the neuroprotective mechanism of SOD1. Results We showed that SOD1-induced [Ca2+]i rise was prevented neither by A430879, a P2X7 receptor specific antagonist or 8-bromo-cADPR, a cell permeant antagonist of cADP-ribose, but only by the pan inhibitor of NCX, CB-DMB. The same occurred for the ApoSOD1. Confocal double labeling immunofluorescence showed a huge expression of plasmalemmal NCX1 and intracellular NCX3 isoforms. Furthermore, we identified NCX1 reverse mode as the main mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective ER Ca2+ refilling elicited by SOD1 and ApoSOD1 through which they promoted translocation of active Akt in the nuclei of a subset of primary motor neurons. Finally, the activation of NCX1 by the specific agonist CN-PYB2 protected motor neurons from L-BMAA-induced cell death, mimicking the effect of SOD1. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicate that SOD1 and ApoSOD1 exert their neuroprotective effect by modulating ER Ca2+ content through the activation of NCX1 reverse mode and Akt nuclear translocation in a subset of primary motor neurons.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Christopher J. Neufeldt ◽  
Berati Cerikan ◽  
Mirko Cortese ◽  
Jamie Frankish ◽  
Ji-Young Lee ◽  

AbstractSARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that has rapidly spread, causing a global pandemic. In the majority of infected patients, SARS-CoV-2 leads to mild disease; however, in a significant proportion of infections, individuals develop severe symptoms that can lead to long-lasting lung damage or death. These severe cases are often associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low antiviral responses, which can cause systemic complications. Here, we have evaluated transcriptional and cytokine secretion profiles and detected a distinct upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in infected cell cultures and samples taken from infected patients. Building on these observations, we found a specific activation of NF-κB and a block of IRF3 nuclear translocation in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. This NF-κB response was mediated by cGAS-STING activation and could be attenuated through several STING-targeting drugs. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 directs a cGAS-STING mediated, NF-κB-driven inflammatory immune response in human epithelial cells that likely contributes to inflammatory responses seen in patients and could be therapeutically targeted to suppress severe disease symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 801
Mai Thi Nguyen ◽  
Wan Lee

Skeletal myogenesis is essential for the maintenance of muscle quality and quantity, and impaired myogenesis is intimately associated with muscle wasting diseases. Although microRNA (miRNA) plays a crucial role in myogenesis and relates to muscle wasting in obesity, the molecular targets and roles of miRNAs modulated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-320-3p on the differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells. Palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant dietary SFA, suppressed myogenic factors expression and impaired differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts, and these effects were accompanied by CFL2 downregulation and miR-320-3p upregulation. In particular, miR-320-3p appeared to target CFL2 mRNA directly and suppress the expression of CFL2, an essential factor for filamentous actin (F-actin) depolymerization. Transfection of myoblasts with miR-320-3p mimic increased F-actin formation and nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a key component of mechanotransduction. Furthermore, miR-320-3p mimic increased myoblast proliferation and markedly impeded the expression of MyoD and MyoG, consequently inhibiting myoblast differentiation. In conclusion, our current study highlights the role of miR-320-3p on CFL2 expression, YAP1 activation, and myoblast differentiation and suggests that PA-inducible miR-320-3p is a significant mediator of muscle wasting in obesity.

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