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PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12763
Author(s):  
Zoltán Botta-Dukát

Background Community assembly by trait selection (CATS) allows for the detection of environmental filtering and estimation of the relative role of local and regional (meta-community-level) effects on community composition from trait and abundance data without using environmental data. It has been shown that Poisson regression of abundances against trait data results in the same parameter estimates. Abundance data do not necessarily follow a Poisson distribution, and in these cases, other generalized linear models should be fitted to obtain unbiased parameter estimates. Aims This paper discusses how the original algorithm for calculating the relative role of local and regional effects has to be modified if Poisson model is not appropriate. Results It can be shown that the use of the logarithm of regional relative abundances as an offset is appropriate only if a log-link function is applied. Otherwise, the link function should be applied to the product of local total abundance and regional relative abundances. Since this product may be outside the domain of the link function, the use of log-link is recommended, even if it is not the canonical link. An algorithm is also suggested for calculating the offset when data are zero-inflated. The relative role of local and regional effects is measured by Kullback-Leibler R2. The formula for this measure presented by Shipley (2014) is valid only if the abundances follow a Poisson distribution. Otherwise, slightly different formulas have to be applied. Beyond theoretical considerations, the proposed refinements are illustrated by numerical examples. CATS regression could be a useful tool for community ecologists, but it has to be slightly modified when abundance data do not follow a Poisson distribution. This paper gives detailed instructions on the necessary refinement.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12804
Author(s):  
Yuanhe Yu ◽  
Xingqi Sun ◽  
Jinliang Wang ◽  
Jianpeng Zhang

Water yield is an ecosystem service that is vital to not only human life, but also sustainable development of the social economy and ecosystem. This study used annual average precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, plant available water content, soil depth, biophysical parameters, Zhang parameter, and land use/land cover (LULC) as input data for the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Service Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to estimate the water yield of Shangri-La City from 1974 to 2015. The spatiotemporal variations and associated factors (precipitation, evapotranspiration, LULC, and topographic factors) in water yield ecosystem services were then analyzed. The result showed that: (1) The water yield of Shangri-La City decreases from north and south to the center and showed a temporal trend from 1974 to 2015 of an initial decrease followed by an increase. Areas of higher average water yield were mainly in Hutiaoxia Town, Jinjiang Town, and Shangjiang Township. (2) Areas of importance for water yield in the study area which need to be assigned priority protection were mainly concentrated in the west of Jiantang Town, in central Xiaozhongdian Town, in central Gezan Township, in northwestern Dongwang Township, and in Hutiaoxia Town. (3) Water yield was affected by precipitation, evapotranspiration, vegetation type, and topographic factors. Water yield was positively and negatively correlated with precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, respectively. The average water yield of shrubs exceeded that of meadows and forests. Terrain factors indirectly affected the ecosystem service functions of water yield by affecting precipitation and vegetation types. The model used in this study can provide references for relevant research in similar climatic conditions.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12635
Author(s):  
Katrin Weber ◽  
Daniela E. Winkler ◽  
Ellen Schulz-Kornas ◽  
Thomas M. Kaiser ◽  
Thomas Tütken

Experimental approaches are often used to better understand the mechanisms behind and consequences of post-mortem alteration on proxies for diet reconstruction. Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) is such a dietary proxy, using dental wear features in extant and extinct taxa to reconstruct feeding behaviour and mechanical food properties. In fossil specimens especially, DMTA can be biased by post-mortem alteration caused by mechanical or chemical alteration of the enamel surface. Here we performed three different dental surface alteration experiments to assess the effect of common taphonomic processes by simplifying them: (1) tumbling in sediment suspension to simulate fluvial transport, (2) sandblasting to simulate mechanical erosion due to aeolian sediment transport, (3) acid etching to simulate chemical dissolution by stomach acid. For tumbling (1) we found alteration to be mainly dependent on sediment grain size fraction and that on specimens tumbled with sand fractions mainly post-mortem scratches formed on the dental surface, while specimens tumbled with a fine-gravel fraction showed post-mortem formed dales. Sandblasting (2) with loess caused only negligible alteration, however blasting with fine sand quartz particles resulted in significant destruction of enamel surfaces and formation of large post-mortem dales. Acid etching (3) using diluted hydrochloric acid solutions in concentrations similar to that of predator stomachs led to a complete etching of the whole dental surface, which did not resemble those of teeth recovered from owl pellets. The experiments resulted in post-mortem alteration comparable, but not identical to naturally occurring post-mortem alteration features. Nevertheless, this study serves as a first assessment and step towards further, more refined taphonomic experiments evaluating post-mortem alteration of dental microwear texture (DMT).


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12753
Author(s):  
Ahmad Yusuf Abubakar ◽  
Muhammed Mustapha Ibrahim ◽  
Caifang Zhang ◽  
Muhammad Tayyab ◽  
Nyumah Fallah ◽  
...  

Background Exploring high-quality organic amendments has been a focus of sustainable agriculture. Filtered mud (FM), a sugar factory waste derived from sugarcane stems, could be an alternative organic amendment for sugarcane production. However, the effects of its application proportions on soil fertility, nutrient cycling, structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities, and the growth of sugarcane in clay-loam soils remain unexplored. Methods Three application proportions of FM: (FM1-(FM: Soil at 1:4), FM2-(FM: Soil at 2:3), and FM3-(FM: Soil at 3:2)) were evaluated on sugarcane growth and soil nutrient cycling. High throughput sequencing was also employed to explore soil microbial dynamics. Results We observed that FM generally increased the soil’s nutritional properties while improving NO3− retention compared to the control, resulting in increased growth parameters of sugarcane. Specifically, FM1 increased the concentration of NH4+−N, the N fraction preferably taken up by sugarcane, which was associated with an increase in the plant height, and more improved growth properties, among other treatments. An increase in the proportion of FM also increased the activity of soil nutrient cycling enzymes; urease, phosphatase, and β-glucosidase. High throughput sequencing revealed that FM reduced the diversity of soil bacteria while having insignificant effects on fungal diversity. Although increasing FM rates reduced the relative abundance of the phyla Proteobacteria, its class members, the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria containing some N-cycling related genera, were stimulated. Also, FM stimulated the abundance of beneficial and lignocellulose degrading organisms. These included the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and the fungal phylum Ascomycota. The distribution of the soil microbial community under FM rates was regulated by the changes in soil pH and the availability of soil nutrients. Since FM1 showed more promise in improving the growth properties of sugarcane, it could be more economical and sustainable for sugarcane production in clay-loam soils.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12445
Author(s):  
Tamás Görföl ◽  
Joe Chun-Chia Huang ◽  
Gábor Csorba ◽  
Dorottya Győrössy ◽  
Péter Estók ◽  
...  

Recordings of bat echolocation and social calls are used for many research purposes from ecological studies to taxonomy. Effective use of these relies on identification of species from the recordings, but comparative recordings or detailed call descriptions to support identification are often lacking for areas with high biodiversity. The ChiroVox website (www.chirovox.org) was created to facilitate the sharing of bat sound recordings together with their metadata, including biodiversity data and recording circumstances. To date, more than 30 researchers have contributed over 3,900 recordings of nearly 200 species, making ChiroVox the largest open-access bat call library currently available. Each recording has a unique identifier that can be cited in publications; hence the acoustic analyses are repeatable. Most of the recordings available through the website are from bats whose species identities are confirmed, so they can be used to determine species in recordings where the bats were not captured or could not be identified. We hope that with the help of the bat researcher community, the website will grow rapidly and will serve as a solid source for bat acoustic research and monitoring.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12718
Author(s):  
RongXiu Liu ◽  
Naresh Vasupalli ◽  
Dan Hou ◽  
Antony Stalin ◽  
Hantian Wei ◽  
...  

With-no-lysine (WNK) kinases play vital roles in abiotic stress response, circadian rhythms, and regulation of flowering time in rice, Arabidopsis, and Glycine max. However, there are no previous reports of WNKs in the Bambusoideae, although genome sequences are available for diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid bamboo species. In the present study, we identified 41 WNK genes in five bamboo species and analysed gene evolution, phylogenetic relationship, physical and chemical properties, cis-elements, and conserved motifs. We predicted the structure of PeWNK proteins of moso bamboo and determined the exposed, buried, structural and functional amino acids. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that PeWNK5, PeWNK7, PeWNK8, and PeWNK11 genes are involved in circadian rhythms. Analysis of gene expression of different organs at different developmental stages revealed that PeWNK genes are tissue-specific. Analysis of various abiotic stress transcriptome data (drought, salt, SA, and ABA) revealed significant gene expression levels in all PeWNKs except PeWNK11. In particular, PeWNK8 and PeWNK9 were significantly down- and up-regulated, respectively, after abiotic stress treatment. A co-expression network of PeWNK genes also showed that PeWNK2, PeWNK4, PeWNK7, and PeWNK8 were co-expressed with transcriptional regulators related to abiotic stress. In conclusion, our study identified the PeWNKs of moso bamboo involved in circadian rhythms and abiotic stress response. In addition, this study serves as a guide for future functional genomic studies of the WNK genes of the Bambusoideae.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12750
Author(s):  
Supharada Tessiri ◽  
Anchalee Techasen ◽  
Sarinya Kongpetch ◽  
Achira Namjan ◽  
Watcharin Loilome ◽  
...  

Background Genetic alterations in ARID1A were detected at a high frequency in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Growing evidence indicates that the loss of ARID1A expression leads to activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and increasing sensitivity of ARID1A-deficient cells for treatment with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor. Therefore, we investigated the association between genetic alterations of ARID1A and the PI3K/AKT pathway and evaluated the effect of AKT inhibition on ARID1A-deficient CCA cells. Methods Alterations of ARID1A, PI3K/AKT pathway-related genes, clinicopathological data and overall survival of 795 CCA patients were retrieved from cBio Cancer Genomics Portal (cBioPortal) databases. The association between genetic alterations and clinical data were analyzed. The effect of the AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) on ARID1A-deficient CCA cell lines and stable ARID1A-knockdown cell lines was investigated. Cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of AKT signaling were analyzed using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Western blots, respectively. Results The analysis of a total of 795 CCA samples revealed that ARID1A alterations significantly co-occurred with mutations of EPHA2 (p < 0.001), PIK3CA (p = 0.047), and LAMA1 (p = 0.024). Among the EPHA2 mutant CCA tumors, 82% of EPHA2 mutant tumors co-occurred with ARID1A truncating mutations. CCA tumors with ARID1A and EPHA2 mutations correlated with better survival compared to tumors with ARID1A mutations alone. We detected that 30% of patients with PIK3CA driver missense mutations harbored ARID1A-truncated mutations and 60% of LAMA1-mutated CCA co-occurred with truncating mutations of ARID1A. Interestingly, ARID1A-deficient CCA cell lines and ARID1A-knockdown CCA cells led to increased sensitivity to treatment with MK-2206 compared to the control. Treatment with MK-2206 induced apoptosis in ARID1A-knockdown KKU-213A and HUCCT1 cell lines and decreased the expression of pAKTS473 and mTOR. Conclusion These findings suggest a dependency of ARID1A-deficient CCA tumors with the activation of the PI3K/AKT-pathway, and that they may be more vulnerable to selective AKT pathway inhibitors which can be used therapeutically.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12680
Author(s):  
Peng Wang ◽  
Zexin Zhang ◽  
Bin Yin ◽  
Jiayuan Li ◽  
Cheng Xialin ◽  
...  

Background Burn patients are prone to infection as well as immunosuppression, which is a significant cause of death. Currently, there is a lack of prognostic biomarkers for immunosuppression in burn patients. This study was conducted to identify immune-related genes that are prognosis biomarkers in post-burn immunosuppression and potential targets for immunotherapy. Methods We downloaded the gene expression profiles and clinical data of 213 burn patients and 79 healthy samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Immune infiltration analysis was used to identify the proportion of circulating immune cells. Functional enrichment analyses were carried out to identify immune-related genes that were used to build miRNA-mRNA networks to screen key genes. Next, we carried out correlation analysis between immune cells and key genes that were then used to construct logistic regression models in GSE77791 and were validated in GSE19743. Finally, we determined the expression of key genes in burn patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results A total of 745 differently expressed genes were screened out: 299 were up-regulated and 446 were down-regulated. The number of Th-cells (CD4+) decreased while neutrophils increased in burn patients. The enrichment analysis showed that down-regulated genes were enriched in the T-cell activation pathway, while up-regulated genes were enriched in neutrophil activation response in burn patients. We screened out key genes (NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4) that could be regulated by miRNA. The expression of key genes was related to the proportion of Th-cells (CD4+) and survival, and was an excellent predictor of prognosis in burns with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.945. Finally, we determined that NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4 were down-regulated in burn patients. Conclusion We found that NFATC2, RORA, and CAMK4 were likely prognostic biomarkers in post-burn immunosuppression and potential immunotherapeutic targets to convert Th-cell dysfunction.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12796
Author(s):  
Yulian Jiao ◽  
Hu Zeng ◽  
Haitao Xia ◽  
Yueying Wang ◽  
Jinwang Wang ◽  
...  

Background The clumping bamboo Bambusa oldhamii Munro, known as “green bamboo”, is famous for its edible bamboo shoots and fast-growing timber. The green and yellow striped-culm B. oldhamii variety, named B. oldhamii f. revoluta W.T. Lin & J. Y. Lin, is an attractive system for researching the culm color variation of B. oldhamii. Methods Millions of clean reads were generated and assembled into 604,900 transcripts, and 383,278 unigenes were acquired with RNA-seq technology. The quantification of ABA, IAA, JA, GA1, GA3, GA4, and GA7 was performed using HPLC–MS/MS platforms. Results Differential expression analysis showed that 449 unigenes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which 190 DEGs were downregulated and 259 DEGs were upregulated in B. oldhamii f. revoluta. Phytohormone contents, especially GA1 and GA7, were higher in B. oldhamii. Approximately 21 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed between the two groups: the bZIP, MYB, and NF-YA transcription factor families had the most DEGs, indicating that those TFs play important roles in B. oldhamii culm color variation. RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the selected genes; moreover, phytohormone contents, especially those of ABA, GA1 and GA7, were differentially accumulated between the groups. Our study provides a basal gene expression and phytohormone analysis of B. oldhamii culm color variation, which could provide a solid fundamental theory for investigating bamboo culm color variation.


PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12777
Author(s):  
Svenja Meyer ◽  
Dominika Kundel ◽  
Klaus Birkhofer ◽  
Andreas Fliessbach ◽  
Stefan Scheu

Higher frequencies of summer droughts are predicted to change soil conditions in the future affecting soil fauna communities and their biotic interactions. In agroecosystems drought effects on soil biota may be modulated by different management practices that alter the availability of different food resources. Recent studies on the effect of drought on soil microarthropods focused on measures of abundance and diversity. We here additionally investigated shifts in trophic niches of Collembola and Oribatida as indicated by stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N). We simulated short-term summer drought by excluding 65% of the ambient precipitation in conventionally and organically managed winter wheat fields on the DOK trial in Switzerland. Stable isotope values suggest that plant litter and root exudates were the most important resources for Collembola (Isotoma caerulea, Isotomurus maculatus and Orchesella villosa) and older plant material and microorganisms for Oribatida (Scheloribates laevigatus and Tectocepheus sarekensis). Drought treatment and farming systems did not affect abundances of the studied species. However, isotope values of some species increased in organically managed fields indicating a higher proportion of microorganisms in their diet. Trophic niche size, a measure of both isotope values combined, decreased with drought and under organic farming in some species presumably due to favored use of plants as basal resource instead of algae and microorganisms. Overall, our results suggest that the flexible usage of resources may buffer effects of drought and management practices on the abundance of microarthropods in agricultural systems.


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