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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 978-983
Shengdi Ding ◽  
Shitong Xing ◽  
Zhanfeng Zhang ◽  
Zhenguo Sun ◽  
Xiaojie Dou ◽  

The menopausal hormone abnormal changes such as estrogen deficiency and increased FSH secretion in female patients in old age may cause osteoporosis which is plagued by patients. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is not yet fully understood. BMP in the transforming growth factor-β superfamily is a key member in the process of bone growth and development, among which BMP-2 exerts critical roles. Impaired osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) contributes to the progress of osteoporosis. BMSC plays an indispensable role in treating osteoporosis and can develop into different directions through induction. As the regenerative medicine nanotechnology has become a new medical method, it is believed that BMSC can be used to treat osteoporosis and other related diseases. Our study analyzed the effects of BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoporotic BMSC cells to provide a reliable reference for the future treatment. Our results showed that BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles promoted BMSC cell proliferation, increased ALP activity, decreased apoptosis rate, increased the expression of Col-1, Runx2 and Osterix, upregulated the osteogenic marker BMP-2. As confirmed by Alizarin Red staining, it could differentiate into osteoblasts and the content of Trap was decreased. In conclusion, our study confirms that BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles can promote BMSC cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, thereby providing new treatments and theoretical reference basis for treating osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 794-799
Le Chang ◽  
Wei Duan ◽  
Chuang Wang ◽  
Jian Zhang

This study was to determine whether microRNA (miRNA)-126 regulates osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Rat BMSCs were extracted and stimulated for osteogenic differentiation. Functional experiments were conducted to assess miR-126’s impact on BMSCs differentiation. Western blot and RT-qPCR determined miR-126 expression. ALP activity detection and alizarin red staining detection were also performed. After osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, miR-126 expression was gradually decreased over time. Overexpression of miR-26 decreased ALP activity, Notch signaling activity as well as declined Runx2 expression and calcium Salt nodules after treatment. Importantly, we found that Smad4 serves as a target of miR-126 while upregulation of the miRNA was accompanied with the decreased Smad4 protein expression without affecting the Smad4 mRNA level. In conclusion, miR-126 restrains osteogenic differentiation through inhibition of SMAD4 signaling, providing a novel insight into the mechanism.

Lucy Y. Tao ◽  
Katarzyna B. Łagosz-Ćwik ◽  
Jolanda M.A. Hogervorst ◽  
Ton Schoenmaker ◽  
Aleksander M. Grabiec ◽  

Diabetes and periodontitis are comorbidities and may share common pathways. Several reports indicate that diabetes medication metformin may be beneficial for the periodontal status of periodontitis patients. Further research using appropriate cell systems of the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds teeth may reveal the possible mechanism. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts anchor teeth in bone and play a role in the onset of both alveolar bone formation and degradation, the latter by inducing osteoclast formation from adherent precursor cells. Therefore, a cell model including this type of cells is ideal to study the influence of metformin on both processes. We hypothesize that metformin will enhance bone formation, as described for osteoblasts, whereas the effects of metformin on osteoclast formation is yet undetermined. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured in the presence of osteogenic medium and 0.2 or 1 mM metformin. The influence of metformin on osteoclast formation was first studied in PDLF cultures supplemented with peripheral blood leukocytes, containing osteoclast precursors. Finally, the effect of metformin on osteoclast precursors was studied in cultures of CD14+ monocytes that were stimulated with M-CSF and receptor activator of Nf-κB ligand (RANKL). No effects of metformin were observed on osteogenesis: not on alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin red deposition, nor on the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX-2, Collagen I and Osteonectin. Metformin inhibited osteoclast formation and accordingly downregulated the genes involved in osteoclastogenesis: RANKL, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and osteoclast fusion gene DC-STAMP. Osteoclast formation on both plastic and bone as well as bone resorption was inhibited by metformin in M-CSF and RANKL stimulated monocyte cultures, probably by reduction of RANK expression. The present study unraveling the positive effect of metformin in periodontitis patients at the cellular level, indicates that metformin inhibits osteoclast formation and activity, both when orchestrated by periodontal ligament fibroblasts and in cytokine driven osteoclast formation assays. The results indicate that metformin could have a systemic beneficiary effect on bone by inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 395
Juan Liu ◽  
Xin Qi ◽  
Xiao-Hong Wang ◽  
Hong-Sheng Miao ◽  
Zi-Chao Xue ◽  

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) emerged as a key regulator in development and tumorigenesis. This study aims to investigate the function and mechanism of MEG3 in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and explores the use of MEG3 in skull defects bone repairing. Methods: Endogenous expression of MEG3 during BMSCs osteogenic differentiation was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MEG3 was knockdown in BMSCs by lentiviral transduction. The proliferation, osteogenic-related genes and proteins expression of MEG3 knockdown BMSCs were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, qPCR, alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase staining. Western blot was used to detect β-catenin expression in MEG3 knockdown BMSCs. Dickkopf 1 (DKK1) was used to block wnt/β-catenin pathway. The osteogenic-related genes and proteins expression of MEG3 knockdown BMSCs after wnt/β-catenin inhibition were assessed by qPCR, alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase staining. MEG3 knockdown BMSCs scaffold with PHMG were implanted in a critical-sized skull defects of rat model. Micro-computed tomography(micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the bone repairing. Results: Endogenous expression of MEG3 was increased during osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Downregulation of MEG3 could promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. Notably, a further mechanism study revealed that MEG3 knockdown could activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in BMSCs. Wnt/β-catenin inhibition would impair MEG3-induced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. By using poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate, PHBHHx)-mesoporous bioactive glass (PHMG) scaffold with MEG3 knockdown BMSCs, we found that downregulation of MEG3 in BMSCs could accelerate bone repairing in a critical-sized skull defects rat model. Conclusions: Our study reveals the important role of MEG3 during osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. Thus, MEG3 engineered BMSCs may be effective potential therapeutic targets for skull defects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 785
Ivan Banovac ◽  
Lovorka Grgurevic ◽  
Viktorija Rumenovic ◽  
Slobodan Vukicevic ◽  
Igor Erjavec

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have a major role in tissue development. BMP3 is synthesized in osteocytes and mature osteoblasts and has an antagonistic effect on other BMPs in bone tissue. The main aim of this study was to fully characterize cortical bone and trabecular bone of long bones in both male and female Bmp3−/− mice. To investigate the effect of Bmp3 from birth to maturity, we compared Bmp3−/− mice with wild-type littermates at the following stages of postnatal development: 1 day (P0), 2 weeks (P14), 8 weeks and 16 weeks of age. Bmp3 deletion was confirmed using X-gal staining in P0 animals. Cartilage and bone tissue were examined in P14 animals using Alcian Blue/Alizarin Red staining. Detailed long bone analysis was performed in 8-week-old and 16-week-old animals using micro-CT. The Bmp3 reporter signal was localized in bone tissue, hair follicles, and lungs. Bone mineralization at 2 weeks of age was increased in long bones of Bmp3−/− mice. Bmp3 deletion was shown to affect the skeleton until adulthood, where increased cortical and trabecular bone parameters were found in young and adult mice of both sexes, while delayed mineralization of the epiphyseal growth plate was found in adult Bmp3−/− mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Shimao Yang ◽  
Fei Gao ◽  
Min Li ◽  
Zhennan Gao

In literature, antiosteoporotic effects of Angelica sinensis root have been confirmed, but the impact of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) on osteoblastic or adipogenic distinction of BMSCs is limited. This paper aimed to explore the role of ASP on proliferation and differentiation of rat BMSCs. Rat BMSCs were subjected to isolation and identification through flow cytometry. The proliferation of rat BMSCs under ASP was performed by CCK-8 kit. Measures of osteogenesis under different concentrations of ASP were detected by using alizarin red staining for mesenchymal cells differentiation and ALP activity assay to identify ALP activity. Quantitative RT-PCR was selected to identify osteoblastic or adipogenic biomarkers from a genetic perspective. Likewise, we have evaluated measures of indicators of Wnt/β-catenin signal. ASP significantly promoted the proliferation, increased osteogenesis, and decreased adipogenesis of rat BMSCs within the limit of 20–60 mg/L in a dose-dependent manner but was suppressed at 80 mg/L. The expression of cyclin D1 and ß-catenin showed a considerable rise over the course of ASP induced osteogenesis. Dickkopf 1 (DKK1) suppressed the regulation of rat BMSCs differentiation through the mediation of ASP. We have observed that ASP upregulated the osteogenic but downregulated adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and our findings help to contribute to effective solutions for treating bone disorders.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 366
Hee-Yeon Kim ◽  
Byung-Hoon Kim ◽  
Myung-Sun Kim

This study aims to investigate the surface characterization and pre-osteoblast biological behaviors on the three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold modified by amine plasma-polymerization. The 3D PCL scaffolds were fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. To improve the pre-osteoblast bioactivity, the 3D PCL scaffold was modified by adding β-TCP nanoparticles, and then scaffold surfaces were modified by amine plasma-polymerization using monomer allylamine (AA) and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane (DACH). After the plasma-polymerization of PCL/β-TCP, surface characterizations such as contact angle, AFM, XRD, and FTIR were evaluated. In addition, mechanical strength was measured by UTM. The pre-osteoblast bioactivities were evaluated by focal adhesion and cell proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation was investigated by ALP activity, Alizarin red staining, and Western blot. Plasma-polymerization induced the increase in hydrophilicity of the surface of the 3D PCL/β-TCP scaffold due to the deposition of amine polymeric thin film on the scaffold surface. Focal adhesion and proliferation of pre-osteoblast improved, and osteogenic differentiation was increased. These results indicated that 3D PCL/β-TCP scaffolds treated with DACH plasma-polymerization showed the highest bioactivity compared to the other samples. We suggest that 3D PCL/β-TCP scaffolds treated with DACH and AA plasma-polymerization can be used as a promising candidate for osteoblast differentiation of pre-osteoblast.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shuo Wang ◽  
Haiyang Jiang ◽  
Caiwei Zheng ◽  
Ming Gu ◽  
Xinyu Zheng

Abstract Introduction Breast microcalcifications is a characteristic feature in diagnostic imaging and a prognostic factor of breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of breast microcalcifications formation are not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is associated with the occurrence of microcalcifications and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment can secrete BMP-2. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of secretion of BMP-2 by TAMs in promoting microcalcifications of breast cancer through immunohistochemical staining and co-culturing of breast cancer cells with TAMs. Methods A total of 272 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer from January 2010 to January 2012 in the First Hospital of China Medical University were included in this study. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 (marker of entire macrophages), CD168 (marker of the M2-like macrophages) and BMP-2 were performed on 4-μm tissue microarray (TMA) sections. Following induction, THP-1 cells were differentiated to M2-like TAMs and were then co-cultured with breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Calcifications and BMP-2 expression were analyzed by Alizarin Red S staining and western blot, respectively. Results Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of CD168 was significantly increased in tissues with microcalcifications and was correlated with the expression of BMP-2 and poor prognosis. The formation of cellular microcalcifications and BMP-2 expression were significantly increased in MCF-7 cells co-cultured with TAMs compared with MCF-7 cells alone. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that TAMs secrete BMP-2 to induce microcalcifications in breast cancer cells and influence prognosis via multiple pathways including BMP-2 and its downstream factors.

2022 ◽  
Xiaohui Lu ◽  
Jiawen Zhang ◽  
Yuanzhou Lu ◽  
Jing Xing ◽  
Min Lian ◽  

Abstract Background and Objective: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a key role in the odontoblastic differentiation. This study aimed to explore the role of LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 in the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and its possible mechanism. Methods: The expression of LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1, miR-153-3p, RUNX2 in the odontoblastic differentiation was detected by qRT-PCR. Interaction between LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 and miR-153-3p and interaction between miR-153-3p and RUNX2 were detected by dual-luciferase assay. The cell viability of DPSCs was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), and the effect of LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 and miR-153-3p on the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs was observed by alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and Western blot for RUNX2, DSPP, DMP-1. Results: During odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs, the expression of LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 increased, miR-153-3p expression decreased, and RUNX2 expression increased. Dual-luciferase assay showed that LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 sponges miR-153-3p and miR-153-3p targets on RUNX2. After LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 and miR-153-3p expressions of DPSCs were changed, the cell viability was not notably changed, but the odontoblastic differentiation was notably changed which was confirmed with alizarin red staining, ALP activity and Western blot for RUNX2, DSPP, DMP-1. Conclusion: LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 promotes the odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs via regulating miR-153-3p/RUNX2 axis, which may provide a therapeutic clue for odontogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Peng Jiang ◽  
Liqin An ◽  
Mengying Zhu ◽  
Jin Li ◽  

Abstract Background: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most commonly valvular disease in the western countries initiated by inflammation and abnormal calcium deposition. Currently, there is no clinical drugs for CAVD. Neutrophil elastase(NE) plays a causal role in inflammation and participates actively in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of NE on valve calcification remains unclear. So we next explore whether it is involved in valve calcification and the molecular mechanisms involved.Methods: NE expression and activity in calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) patients (n=58) and healthy patients (n=30) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (pVICs) were isolated and used in vitro expriments. The effects of NE on pVICs inflammation, apoptosis and calcification were detected by hochest 33258 staining, MTT assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. The effects of NE knockdown and NE activity inhibitor Alvelestat on pVICs inflammation, apoptosis and calcification under osteogenic medium induction were also detected by RT-PCR, western blot, alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red staining. Changes of Intracellular signaling pathways after NE treatment were measured by western blot.Results: The level and activity of NE were evaluated in patients with CAVS and calcified valve tissues. NE promoted inflammation, apoptosis and phenotype transition in pVICs in the presence or absence of osteogenic medium. Under osteogenic medium induction, NE silencing or NE inhibitor Alvelestat both suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of pVICs. Mechanically, NE played its role in promoting osteogenic differentiation of pVICs by activating the NF-κB and AKT signaling pathway.Conclusions: Collectively, NE is highly involved in the pathogenesis of valve calcification. Targeting NE such as Alvelestat may be a potential treatment for CAVD.

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