osteoclast differentiation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 978-983
Shengdi Ding ◽  
Shitong Xing ◽  
Zhanfeng Zhang ◽  
Zhenguo Sun ◽  
Xiaojie Dou ◽  

The menopausal hormone abnormal changes such as estrogen deficiency and increased FSH secretion in female patients in old age may cause osteoporosis which is plagued by patients. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is not yet fully understood. BMP in the transforming growth factor-β superfamily is a key member in the process of bone growth and development, among which BMP-2 exerts critical roles. Impaired osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) contributes to the progress of osteoporosis. BMSC plays an indispensable role in treating osteoporosis and can develop into different directions through induction. As the regenerative medicine nanotechnology has become a new medical method, it is believed that BMSC can be used to treat osteoporosis and other related diseases. Our study analyzed the effects of BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoporotic BMSC cells to provide a reliable reference for the future treatment. Our results showed that BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles promoted BMSC cell proliferation, increased ALP activity, decreased apoptosis rate, increased the expression of Col-1, Runx2 and Osterix, upregulated the osteogenic marker BMP-2. As confirmed by Alizarin Red staining, it could differentiate into osteoblasts and the content of Trap was decreased. In conclusion, our study confirms that BMP-2/estrogen composite nanoparticles can promote BMSC cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, thereby providing new treatments and theoretical reference basis for treating osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 544-550
Shuo Yang ◽  
Jincheng Sima ◽  
Wenbo Liao

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can release a large amount of exosomes (EXO) during bone remodeling by osteoclasts. EXO contains miRNA-211, which has a variety of biological effects. However, little is known about whether miR-211 from BMSC-EXO affects the surrounding cells. Therefore, we aim to study the role of miRNA-211 derived from BMSC-EXO in regulating osteoclasts differentiation. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and nuclear factor kappa B receptor activator (RANKL) were used to stimulate bone marrow macrophages (BMM) to obtain osteoclasts, which were treated with BMSC-EXO or LPS followed by analysis of osteoclast-related genes expression by PCR, ROS release by flow cytometry, actin ring formation by immunofluorescence, and osteoclast differentiation by anti-tartrate acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Finally, an in vivo experiment was conducted to verify BMSC-EXO’s effect on osteoporosis. BMSC-EXO significantly inhibited RNAKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of BMMs. During osteoclasts formation, BMSC-EXO inhibited ROS production induced by RANKL and the subsequent activation of NF-κB signaling pathway induced by ROS. In addition, BMSC-EXO significantly down-regulated the osteoclast genes including nuclear factor, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), C-fos, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor (OSCAR) in activated T cells. BMSC-EXO inhibited ROS release by promoting miR-211 expression, thereby inhibiting the NF-κB signaling and ultimately participating in osteoclasts differentiation. In LPS-induced mouse osteoporosis models, BMSC-EXO inhibited LPS-induced bone loss and exerted a protective effect. In conclusion, microRNA-211 derived from BMSC-EXO can regulate osteoclasts differentiation, suggesting that it might be used as a potential approach for treating osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yanhui Tan ◽  
Minhong Ke ◽  
Zhichao Li ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Jiehuang Zheng ◽  

It is a viable strategy to inhibit osteoclast differentiation for the treatment of osteolytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastases. Here we assessed the effects of insulicolide A, a natural nitrobenzoyl sesquiterpenoid derived from marine fungus, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and its protective effects on LPS-induced osteolysis mice model in vivo. The results demonstrated that insulicolide A inhibited osteoclastogenesis from 1 μM in vitro. Insulicolide A could prevent c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) nuclear translocation and attenuate the expression levels of osteoclast-related genes and DC-STAMP during RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis but have no effects on NF-κB and MAPKs. Insulicolide A can also protect the mice from LPS-induced osteolysis. Our research provides the first evidence that insulicolide A may inhibit osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and indicates that it may have potential for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Dashuai Zhu ◽  
Zhenhua Li ◽  
Zhenzhen Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a chronic condition affecting patients’ morbidity and mortality and represents a big socioeconomic burden. Because stem cells can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells, stem cell therapy for osteoporosis has been widely studied. However, cells as a live drug face multiple challenges because of their instability during preservation and transportation. In addition, cell therapy has potential adverse effects such as embolism, tumorigenicity, and immunogenicity. Results Herein, we sought to use cell-mimicking and targeted therapeutic nanoparticles to replace stem cells. We fabricated nanoparticles (NPs) using polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) loaded with the secretome (Sec) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form MSC-Sec NPs. Furthermore, we cloaked the nanoparticles with the membranes from C–X–C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-expressing human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) to generate MSC-Sec/CXCR4 NP. CXCR4 can target the nanoparticles to the bone microenvironment under osteoporosis based on the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis. Conclusions In a rat model of osteoporosis, MSC-Sec/CXCR4 NP were found to accumulate in bone, and such treatment inhibited osteoclast differentiation while promoting osteogenic proliferation. In addition, our results showed that MSC-Sec/CXCR4 NPs reduce OVX-induced bone mass attenuation in OVX rats. Graphical Abstract

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 501
Seong-Sik Kim ◽  
Soon-Pill Jeong ◽  
Bong-Soo Park ◽  
In-Ryoung Kim

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that is involved in the biorhythm of reproductive activities. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of melatonin on osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells according to changes in V-ATPase and the corresponding inhibition of the MAPK and NFATc1 signaling processes. Methods: the cytotoxic effect of melatonin was investigated by MTT assay. Osteoclast differentiation and gene expression of osteoclast-related factors were confirmed via TRAP staining, pit formation assay, immunofluorescence imaging, western blot, and real-time PCR. Results: melatonin was found to inactivate the p38 and JNK of MAP kinase in RAW264.7 cells treated with RANKL and treated with a combination RANKL and melatonin for 1, 3, and 5 days. The melatonin treatment group showed a reduction in osteoclastogenesis transcription factors and ATP6v0d2 gene expression. Conclusions: melatonin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and cell fusion by inhibiting the expression of Atp6v0d2 through the inactivation of MAPK and NFATc1 signaling in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. The findings of the present study suggest that melatonin could be a suitable therapy for bone loss and imply a potential role of melatonin in bone health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 809
Sho Yokoe ◽  
Akira Hasuike ◽  
Norihisa Watanabe ◽  
Hideki Tanaka ◽  
Hiroyuki Karahashi ◽  

Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that causes the destruction of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major public health problem affecting more than half of the adult population worldwide. Recently, members of the herpes virus family, such as the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), have been suggested to be involved in the etiology of periodontitis because bacterial activity alone does not adequately explain the clinical characteristics of periodontitis. However, the role of EBV in the etiology of periodontitis is unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of inactivated EBV on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and the induction of osteoclast differentiation. We found that extremely high levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were induced by inactivated EBV in a copy-dependent manner in HGFs. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs were higher when the cells were treated with EBV than when treated with lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. EBV induced IκBα degradation, NF-κB transcription, and RAW264.7 cell differentiation into osteoclast-like cells. These findings suggest that even without infecting the cells, EBV contributes to inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclast differentiation by contact with oral cells or macrophage lineage, resulting in periodontitis onset and progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Meisong Zhu ◽  
Qiang Xu ◽  
Xinmin Yang ◽  
Haibo Zhan ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  

Disruption of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and subchondral bone remodeling play significant roles in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Vindoline (Vin), an indole alkaloid extracted from the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. According to previous studies, inflammation is closely associated with osteoclast differentiation and the disorders of the homeostasis between ECM. Although Vin has demonstrated effective anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on the progression of OA remain unclear. We hypothesized that Vin may suppress the progress of OA by suppressing osteoclastogenesis and stabilizing ECM of articular cartilage. Therefore, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of Vin as a treatment for OA in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we found that Vin significantly suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and obviously stabilized the disorders of the ECM homeostasis stimulated by IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expressions of osteoclast-specific genes were inhibited by Vin treatment. Vin also suppressed IL-1β-induced mRNA expressions of catabolism and protected the mRNA expressions of anabolism. Moreover, Vin notably inhibited the activation of RANKL-induced and IL-1β-induced NF-κB and ERK pathways. In vivo, Vin played a protective role by inhibiting osteoclast formation and stabilizing cartilage ECM in destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)-induced OA mice. Collectively, our observations provide a molecular-level basis for Vin’s potential in the treatment of OA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Yao He ◽  
Mengjiao Zhou ◽  
Zixiang Jian ◽  
Lingli Fang ◽  
Lan Huang ◽  

Background. C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of inflammation, is highly expressed in osteoarthritis- (OA-) related diseases, but its exact role remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the biological effect of CRP on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Methods. Freund’s complete adjuvant (CFA) was used to induce TMJ inflammation in CRP-knockout (CRP-/-) and control rats. Degenerative changes in the TMJ were compared to elucidate the role of CRP in TMJ inflammation. In addition, inflammatory cytokines, macrophage activation, and osteoclast differentiation were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and tartrate-resistant phosphatase staining to explore the potential regulatory mechanism. Results. Compared to the control, CFA induced TMJ inflammation, which increased systemic and local CRP expression. Furthermore, CRP-/- rats exhibited less severe inflammatory symptoms. The downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6) and upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were detected in CRP-/- rats, which also exhibited reduced macrophage activation and osteoclast differentiation. Conclusion. These results indicated that controlling the highly elevated levels of CRP during inflammation could modify the cytokine profile, macrophage activation, and osteoclast differentiation, thus, providing beneficial effects for TMJ-OA prevention and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 675
Kimberly K. Richardson ◽  
Wen Ling ◽  
Kimberly Krager ◽  
Qiang Fu ◽  
Stephanie D. Byrum ◽  

The damaging effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on bone mass are well-documented in mice and humans and are most likely due to increased osteoclast number and function. However, the mechanisms leading to inappropriate increases in osteoclastic bone resorption are only partially understood. Here, we show that exposure to multiple fractions of low-doses (10 fractions of 0.4 Gy total body irradiation [TBI]/week, i.e., fractionated exposure) and/or a single exposure to the same total dose of 4 Gy TBI causes a decrease in trabecular, but not cortical, bone mass in young adult male mice. This damaging effect was associated with highly activated bone resorption. Both osteoclast differentiation and maturation increased in cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice exposed to either fractionated or singular TBI. IR also increased the expression and enzymatic activity of mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3)—an essential protein for osteoclast mitochondrial activity and bone resorption in the development of osteoporosis. Osteoclast progenitors lacking Sirt3 exposed to IR exhibited impaired resorptive activity. Taken together, targeting impairment of osteoclast mitochondrial activity could be a novel therapeutic strategy for IR-induced bone loss, and Sirt3 is likely a major mediator of this effect.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Honglin Wang ◽  
Pujan Joshi ◽  
Seung-Hyun Hong ◽  
Peter F. Maye ◽  
David W. Rowe ◽  

Abstract Background Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF8) and nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) are two transcription factors that have an important role in osteoclast differentiation. Thanks to ChIP-seq technology, scientists can now estimate potential genome-wide target genes of IRF8 and NFATc1. However, finding target genes that are consistently up-regulated or down-regulated across different studies is hard because it requires analysis of a large number of high-throughput expression studies from a comparable context. Method We have developed a machine learning based method, called, Cohort-based TF target prediction system (cTAP) to overcome this problem. This method assumes that the pathway involving the transcription factors of interest is featured with multiple “functional groups” of marker genes pertaining to the concerned biological process. It uses two notions, Gene-Present Sufficiently (GP) and Gene-Absent Insufficiently (GA), in addition to log2 fold changes of differentially expressed genes for the prediction. Target prediction is made by applying multiple machine-learning models, which learn the patterns of GP and GA from log2 fold changes and four types of Z scores from the normalized cohort’s gene expression data. The learned patterns are then associated with the putative transcription factor targets to identify genes that consistently exhibit Up/Down gene regulation patterns within the cohort. We applied this method to 11 publicly available GEO data sets related to osteoclastgenesis. Result Our experiment identified a small number of Up/Down IRF8 and NFATc1 target genes as relevant to osteoclast differentiation. The machine learning models using GP and GA produced NFATc1 and IRF8 target genes different than simply using a log2 fold change alone. Our literature survey revealed that all predicted target genes have known roles in bone remodeling, specifically related to the immune system and osteoclast formation and functions, suggesting confidence and validity in our method. Conclusion cTAP was motivated by recognizing that biologists tend to use Z score values present in data sets for the analysis. However, using cTAP effectively presupposes assembling a sizable cohort of gene expression data sets within a comparable context. As public gene expression data repositories grow, the need to use cohort-based analysis method like cTAP will become increasingly important.

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