Healthcare Resource Utilization in Children with Cerebral Palsy

OrthoMedia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ajay Sharma ◽  
Paula J Alvarez ◽  
Steven D Woods ◽  
Jeanene Fogli ◽  
Dingwei Dai

Abstract Background Hyperkalemia is a serious metabolic condition and can lead to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Guideline-directed medications that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis can increase serum potassium and may limit their use. Hyperkalemia has been shown to drive healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs for patients with cardiorenal conditions. Objectives To describe hyperkalemic patient characteristics and quantify patient HRU and costs relative to normokalemic patients from a large US health plan. Methods A retrospective cohort study that identified and evaluated a hyperkalemic patient population from a large administrative claims database. The observation period was 1 January 2015 to 31 May 2018, with a 1-year follow-up period after the index date (the earliest service/claim with evidence of hyperkalemia). Primary patient outcomes included inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits, primary care physician (PCP)/specialist visits, length of stay (LOS) and associated medical and pharmacy costs. This hyperkalemic cohort was stratified by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) utilization and chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage for the economic analysis. Key findings 86,129 adult patients with hyperkalemia were evaluated in the study cohort (median age: 69 years). There were more males [45,155 (52%)], with the majority of patients located in the Southern United States [45,541 (51%)] and a 70/30 split of Medicare to a commercial health plan. Most patients had CKD, hypertension and hyperlipidemia; ≥80% of the patients had ≥4 comorbidities. Over 40% of patients were not receiving RAASi therapy, and potassium binder use was low (<5%). Patients using optimal-dose RAASi with proportion of days covered ≥80% were observed to have the lowest HRU for inpatient admissions, ED and PCP visits and LOS days. Conclusions Hyperkalemia is associated with substantial HRU and costs. The development of a quality improvement program structured around the management of hyperkalemia in individuals with heart failure, diabetes and/or CKD may be necessary.

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