AIM: To evaluate differences in microparticle profiles in vitreous samples between diabetic and non-diabetic eyes undergoing vitrectomy.
METHODS: Un-masked cross-sectional series of 34 eyes undergoing vitrectomy. Vitreous specimens were collected and processed to evaluate for membrane integrity (DAPI), apoptosis (Annexin-V), and endothelial-cell origin (V-Cadherin). A BD LSR II flow cytometer was used for analysis and standardized sub-micron-sized beads were used for size comparison.
RESULTS: Thirty-four specimens underwent analysis. Greater levels of Annexin-V were found on microparticles from specimens in which blood had entered the vitreous (n=12) compared to those without blood (n=22; 52.3%±30.7% vs 19.6%±27.2%, P=0.002). Patients with diabetes having surgery with hemorrhage (n=7) had greater expression of Annexin-V than those without hemorrhage (n=8; 62.1%±31.7% vs 18.9%±20.9%, P=0.009). However, in patients with non-diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, the level of Annexin-V expression was not significantly different compared to other disease processes (38.6%±25.7%, n=5 vs 20.0%±30.9%, n=14, P=0.087).
CONCLUSION: Increased expression of the apoptotic marker, Annexin-V is detected on vitreous microparticles in diabetes-related vitreous hemorrhage. When evaluating vitreous hemorrhage in patients without diabetes, the apoptotic signal is not significantly different. Vitrectomy in patients with diabetes, and improvement in visual outcomes, may be related to the removal of a serum-derived, pro-apoptotic vitreous. Further investigation is warranted in order to identify the molecular characteristics of microparticles that regulate disease.
COVID-19 disrupted health care, causing a decline in the health of patients with chronic diseases and a need to reimagine diabetes care. With the advances in telehealth programs, there is a need to effectively implement programs that meet the needs of patients quickly.
The aim of this paper was to create a virtual boot camp program for patients with diabetes, in 3 months, from project conception to the enrollment of our first patients. Our goal is to provide practical strategies for rapidly launching an effective virtual program to improve diabetes care.
A multidisciplinary team of physicians, dieticians, and educators, with support from the telehealth team, created a virtual program for patients with diabetes. The program combined online diabetes data tracking with weekly telehealth visits over a 12-week period.
Over 100 patients have been enrolled in the virtual diabetes boot camp. Preliminary data show an improvement of diabetes in 75% (n=75) of the patients who completed the program. Four principles were identified and developed to reflect the quick design and launch.
The rapid launch of a virtual diabetes program is feasible. A coordinated, team-based, systematic approach will facilitate implementation and sustained adoption across a large multispecialty ambulatory health care organization.
There are a number of ongoing developments to improve the care of patients with diabetes across countries given its growing burden. Recent developments include new oral medicines to reduce cardiovascular events and death. They also include new modes to improve insulin administration to enhance adherence and subsequent patient management thereby reducing hypoglycaemia and improving long-term outcomes. In the case of insulins, this includes long-acting insulin analogues as well as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion systems, combined with sensor-augmented pump therapy and potentially hybrid closed-loops. The benefits of such systems have been endorsed by endocrine societies and governments in patients with Type 1 diabetes whose HbA1c levels are not currently being optimised. However, there are concerns with the low use of such systems across higher-income countries, exacerbated by their higher costs, despite studies suggesting their cost-effectiveness ratios are within accepted limits. This is inconsistent in higher-income countries when compared with reimbursement and funding decisions for new high-priced medicines for cancer and orphan diseases, with often limited benefits, given the burden of multiple daily insulin injections coupled with the need for constant monitoring. This situation is different among patients and governments in low- and low-middle income countries struggling to fund standard insulins and the routine monitoring of HbA1c levels. The first priority in these countries is to address these priority issues before funding more expensive forms of insulin and associated devices. Greater patient involvement in treatment decisions, transparency in decision making, and evidence-based investment decisions should help to address such concerns in the future.
Background: The effectiveness of glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) is unknown among patients with dementia. Objective: To analyze all-cause mortality among users of six GLDs in dementia and dementia-free subjects, respectively. Methods: This was a longitudinal open-cohort registry-based study using data from the Swedish Dementia Registry, Total Population Register, and four supplemental registers providing data on dementia status, drug usage, confounders, and mortality. The cohort comprised 132,402 subjects with diabetes at baseline, of which 11,401 (8.6%) had dementia and 121,001 (91.4%) were dementia-free. Subsequently, comparable dementia – dementia-free pairs were sampled. Then, as-treated and intention-to-treat exposures to metformin, insulin, sulfonylurea, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues (GLP-1a), and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) were analyzed in the parallel dementia and dementia-free cohorts. Confounding was addressed using inverse-probability weighting and propensity-score matching, and flexible parametric survival models were used to produce hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association between GLDs and all-cause mortality. Results: In the as-treated models, increased mortality was observed among insulin users with dementia (HR 1.34 [95%CI 1.24–1.45]) as well as in dementia-free subjects (1.54 [1.10–1.55]). Conversely, sulfonylurea was associated with higher mortality only in dementia subjects (1.19 [1.01–1.42]). GLP-1a (0.44 [0.25–0.78]) and SGLT-2i users with dementia (0.43 [0.23–0.80]) experienced lower mortality compared to non-users. Conclusion: Insulin and sulfonylurea carried higher mortality risk among dementia patients, while GLP-1a and SGLT-2i were associated with lower risk. GLD-associated mortality varied between dementia and comparable dementia-free subjects. Further studies are needed to optimize GLD use in dementia patients.
Several epidemiological studies have suggested that vitamin D status is associated with risk of dementia in general populations. However, due to the synergistic effect between diabetic pathology and neuroinflammation, and the prothrombotic profile in patients with diabetes, whether vitamin D is associated with risk of dementia among patients with diabetes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the associations of circulating vitamin D levels with risks of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VD) among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods and findings
This study included 13,486 individuals (≥60 years) with T2D and free of dementia at recruitment (2006–2010) from the UK Biobank study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method at recruitment. Serum 25(OH)D ≥ 75 nmol/L was considered sufficient, according to the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Incidence of all-cause dementia, AD, and VD cases was ascertained using electronic health records (EHRs). Each participant’s person-years at risk were calculated from the date of recruitment to the date that dementia was reported, date of death, date of loss to follow-up, or 28 February 2018, whichever occurred first. Among the 13,486 individuals with T2D (mean age, 64.6 years; men, 64.3%), 38.3% had vitamin D ≥ 50 nmol/L and only 9.1% had vitamin D ≥ 75 nmol/L. During a mean follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 283 cases of all-cause dementia, including 101 AD and 97 VD cases. Restricted cubic spline analysis demonstrated a nonlinear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and risk of all-cause dementia (Pnonlinearity < 0.001) and VD (Pnonlinearity = 0.007), and the nonlinear association reached borderline significance for AD (Pnonlinearity = 0.06), with a threshold at around a serum 25(OH)D value of 50 nmol/L for all the outcomes. Higher serum levels of 25(OH)D were significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause dementia, AD, and VD. The multivariate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for participants who had serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L, compared with those who were severely deficient (25[OH]D < 25 nmol/L), were 0.41 (0.29–0.60) for all-cause dementia (Ptrend < 0.001), 0.50 (0.27–0.92) for AD (Ptrend = 0.06), and 0.41 (0.22–0.77) for VD (Ptrend = 0.01). The main limitation of the current analysis was the potential underreporting of dementia cases, as the cases were identified via EHRs.
In this study, we observed that higher concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause dementia, AD, and VD among individuals with T2D. Our findings, if confirmed by replication, may have relevance for dementia prevention strategies that target improving or maintaining serum vitamin D concentrations among patients with T2D.
Long-term glycemic variability has been related to increased risk of vascular complication in patients with diabetes. However, the association between parameters of long-term glycemic variability and risk of stroke remains not fully determined. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the above association.
Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for longitudinal follow-up studies comparing the incidence of stroke in diabetic patients with higher or lower long-term glycemic variability. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity among the included studies were used to pool the results.
Seven follow-up studies with 725,784 diabetic patients were included, and 98% of them were with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The mean follow-up duration was 7.7 years. Pooled results showed that compared to those with lowest category of glycemic variability, diabetic patients with the highest patients had significantly increased risk of stroke, as evidenced by glycemic variability analyzed by fasting plasma glucose coefficient of variation (FPG-CV: risk ratio [RR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 1.39, P < 0.001; I2 = 53%), standard deviation of FPG (FPG-SD: RR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31, P = 0.02; I2 = 74%), HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV: RR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.19 P < 0.001; I2 = 0%), and standard deviation of HbA1c (HbA1c-SD: RR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.00, P < 0.001; I2 = 0%).
Long-term glycemic variability is associated with higher risk of stroke in T2DM patients.