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Author(s):  
T.S. Brown ◽  
U. Grewal ◽  
S.R. Thotamgari ◽  
A.K. Ananthaneni ◽  
C. Burnett ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Tafese Beyene Tufa ◽  
Colin R. Mackenzie ◽  
Hans Martin Orth ◽  
Tobias Wienemann ◽  
Tamara Nordmann ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death in many low-income countries, such as Ethiopia. Without reliable local data concerning causative pathogens and antimicrobial resistance, empiric treatment is suboptimal. The objective of this study was to characterize gram-negative bacteria (GNB) as pathogens and their resistance pattern in hospitalized patients with infections in central Ethiopia. Methods Patients ≥ 1 year of age with fever admitted to the Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from April 2016 to June 2018 were included. Blood and other appropriate clinical specimens were collected and cultured on appropriate media. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the Kirby–Bauer method and VITEK® 2. Species identification and detection of resistance genes were conducted using MALDI-ToF MS (VITEK® MS) and PCR, respectively. Results Among the 684 study participants, 54.2% were male, and the median age was 22.0 (IQR: 14–35) years. Blood cultures were positive in 5.4% (n = 37) of cases. Among other clinical samples, 60.6% (20/33), 20.8% (5/24), and 37.5% (3/8) of swabs/pus, urine and other body fluid cultures, respectively, were positive. Among 66 pathogenic isolates, 57.6% (n = 38) were GNB, 39.4% (n = 26) were gram-positive, and 3.0% (n = 2) were Candida species. Among the isolated GNB, 42.1% (16/38) were Escherichia coli, 23.7% (9/38) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10.5% (4/38) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In total, 27/38 gram-negative isolates were available for further analysis. Resistance rates were as follows: ampicillin/sulbactam, 92.6% (n = 25); cefotaxime, 88.9% (n = 24); ceftazidime, 74.1% (n = 20); cefepime, 74.1% (n = 20); gentamicin, 55.6% (n = 15); piperacillin/tazobactam, 48.1% (n = 13); meropenem, 7.4% (n = 2); and amikacin, 3.7% (n = 1). The blaNDM-1 gene was detected in one K. pneumoniae and one Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, which carried an additional blaOXA-51 gene. The ESBL enzymes were detected in 81.5% (n = 22) of isolates as follows: TEM, 77.2% (n = 17); CTX-M-1 group, 68.2% (n = 15); SHV group, 27.3% (n = 6); and CTX-M-9 group, 9.1% (n = 2). Based on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility results, empiric treatment initiated in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients was likely ineffective. Conclusion We report a high prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria (81.5%) and carbapenem resistance (7.4%), with more than half of GNB carrying two or more ESBL enzymes resulting in suboptimal empiric antibiotic therapy. These findings indicate a need for local and national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and the strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Fang Zheng

Objective: To investigate the pathogenic characteristics of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure as well as the diagnostic value of soluble myeloid cell expression triggering receptor-1 (sTREM-1), soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducing factor (sTWEAK). Methods: A total of 72 patients with pulmonary infection who were hospitalized with chronic heart failure from December 2017 to December 2019 in the Department of Cardiology of Hebei Baoding Huaying Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, were selected as the infection group, seventy-two patients without pulmonary infection who were hospitalized with chronic heart failure were selected as the non-infection group, and 50 healthy subjects who underwent physical examination in the hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. The distribution characteristics of pathogens in the infection group were statistically analyzed. The levels of sTREM-1, S CD163 and STweak in serum of patients with different infection severity and different cardiac function grades were compared among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was utilized to evaluate the predictive value of the three indicators for the adverse prognosis of patients in hospital. Results: A total of 76 strains of pathogens were cultured from two hospitalized patients with pulmonary infection of chronic heart failure, among which 43 strains (56.58%) were gram-negative bacteria, 29 strains (38.15%) were gram-positive bacteria, and four strains (5.26%) were fungi. The levels of sTREM-1 and sCD163 in the control group, non-infection group and infection group were gradually increased (p<0.05), while there was no difference in sTWEAK between the infection group and the non-infection group (p>0.05). In the infection group, the expression levels of sTREM-1 and sCD163 increased with the severity of infection, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference in the expression level of sTWEAK among different infection severity (p>0.05). The higher the cardiac function grade of patients in the infection group, the higher the levels of sTREM-1 and sCD163, and the lower the level of sTWEAK, with a statistical significance (p<0.05). ROC analysis results showed that the serum sTREM-1, sCD163, and sTWEAK levels for the poor prognosis of patients with CHF combined with lung infection had areas under the curve of 0.864, 0.870, and 0.822, respectively, and the 95% CI values were 0.787-0.941, 0.795-0.945 and 0.733-0.910, respectively, all p<0.001. Conclusions: Pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure is mainly caused by gram-negative bacteria. Detection of sTREM-1, sCD163, and sTWEAK levels is of certain value in judging the condition and prognosis, which is worthy of clinical promotion. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4758 How to cite this:Zheng F. Pathogenic characteristics of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure and diagnostic value of sTREM-1, sCD163, and sTWEAK. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4758 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Freilich ◽  
Jennifer Victory ◽  
Paul Jenkins ◽  
James Wheeler ◽  
G Matthew Vail ◽  
...  

Background ACEi/ARB medications have been hypothesized to have potential benefit in COVID-19. Despite concern for increased ACE-2 expression in some animal models, preclinical and observational-retrospective and uncontrolled trials suggested possible benefit. Two RCTs of the ARB losartan from University of Minnesota showed no benefit yet safety signals for losartan in outpatient and hospitalized COVID-19 patients. COVID MED, started early in the pandemic, also assessed losartan in a RCT in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods COVID MED was quadruple-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter randomized clinical trial (RCT). Hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomized to receive standard care and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, losartan, or placebo. Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir arms were discontinued after RCTs showed no benefit. We report data from the losartan arm compared to combined (lopinavir-ritonavir and placebo) and prespecified placebo-only controls. The primary endpoint was the NCOSS slope of change. Slow enrollment prompted early stopping. Results Of 432 screened patients, 14 were enrolled (3.5%), 9 received losartan and 5 combined control (lopinavir/ritonavir [N=2], placebo [N=3]); 1 hydroxychloroquine arm patient was excluded. Most baseline parameters were balanced. Treatment with losartan was not associated with a difference in NCOSS slope of change in comparison with combined control (p=0.4) or placebo-only control (p=0.05) (trend favoring placebo). 60-day mortality and overall AE and SAE rates were numerically but not significantly higher with losartan. Conclusions In this small blinded RCT in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, losartan did not improve outcome vs. control comparisons and was associated with adverse safety signals.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Daniel Freilich ◽  
Jennifer Victory ◽  
Anne Gadomski

Background In the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many hospitalized patients received empiric hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine (HC/CQ). Although some retrospective-observational trials suggested potential benefit, all subsequent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) failed to show benefit and use generally ceased. Herein, we summarize key studies that clinicians advising patients on HC/CQ efficacy:safety calculus in hospitalized COVID-19 patients would want to know about in a practical one-stop-shopping source. Methods Pubmed and Google were searched on November 4, 2021. Search words included: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, in vitro, animal studies, clinical trials, and meta-analyses. Studies were assessed for import and included if considered impactful for benefit:risk assessment. Results These searches led to inclusion of 12 in vitro and animal reports; 12 retrospective-observational trials, 19 interventional clinical trials (17 RCTs, 1 single-arm, 1 controlled but unblinded), and 51 meta-analyses in hospitalized patients. Inconsistent efficacy was seen in vitro and in animal studies for coronaviruses and nil in SARS-CoV-2 animal models specifically. Most retrospective-observational studies in hospitalized COVID-19 patients found no efficacy; QT prolongation and increased adverse events and mortality were reported in some. All RCTs and almost all meta-analyses provided robust data showing no benefit in overall populations and subgroups, yet concerning safety issues in many. Conclusions HC/CQ have inconsistent anti-coronavirus efficacy in vitro and in animal models, and no convincing efficacy yet substantial safety issues in the overwhelming majority of retrospective-observational trials, RCTs, and meta-analyses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. HC/CQ should not be prescribed for hospitalized COVID-19 patients outside of clinical trials.


2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Neiko Ozasa ◽  
Takao Kato ◽  
Takeshi Morimoto ◽  
Hidenori Yaku ◽  
Erika Yamamoto ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zahra Movahedi ◽  
Soheil Dehghani ◽  
Zoha Ali ◽  
Amirali Karimi ◽  
Shahram Arsangjang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Influenza is one of the most important viruses and causes millions of infections and 290-600 thousands deaths annually. We aimed to evaluate the hospitalization rates due to complications caused by the influenza virus (pneumonia, seizures, sinusitis, otitis, myositis and encephalitis), the frequency of clinical signs, and laboratory findings in children under 15 years of age infected with Influenza.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study during the Influenza epidemic in Qom, Iran, from October 2019 to February 2020. Children under 15 years of age with the definitive diagnosis of influenza obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were included.Results: Out of 1225 patients who referred to us with flu-like symptoms; 1172 patients were referred by the emergency department and our hospital clinic but 53 patients were referred to us by other paediatricians. 375 patients (30.61%) who had a positive PCR test result for influenza and suffered from complications caused by the virus were hospitalized.The number of male hospitalized patients was 231 (61.6% of hospitalized patients) and the number of female hospitalized patients was 144 (38.4% of hospitalized patients) respectively.The highest age range of patients with pneumonia was of 13 months to 3 years with a hospitalization rate of 36.41% and the lowest hospitalization rate was of 12 years to 15 years with a hospitalization rate of 0.84%.The most serious complication observed in patients caused by the influenza virus was pneumonia; with 17 cases (4.53%) reported.89.6% of patients had fever at the time of referral causing it to be the most common clinical symptom among patients. Cough ranked second with 76.8%.Lymphopenia and leukopenia was recognized as the most common laboratory findings with a frequency of 26.33% and 21.85%.Conclusions: Complications of influenza was not uncommon in children and affected a fifth of the patients. The influenza epidemic of October 2019- February 2020 imposed a heavy burden on our hospital and the learned lessons should be implemented to further assist the physicians in future influenza epidemic.


2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110643
Author(s):  
Lindsay A. Courtney ◽  
Toby C. Trujillo ◽  
Joseph J. Saseen ◽  
Garth Wright ◽  
Surabhi Palkimas

Background: Data are limited regarding the incidence of thromboembolism post-hospital discharge among COVID-19 patients. Guidelines addressing the role of extended thromboprophylaxis for COVID-19 patients are limited and conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of post-discharge thromboembolic and bleeding events and the role of thromboprophylaxis among COVID-19 patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of hospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 infection who were discharged from a University of Colorado Health (UCHealth) hospital between March 1, 2020, and October 31, 2020. The primary outcome was objectively confirmed thromboembolism within 35 days post-discharge. The main secondary outcome was the incidence of bleeding events within 35 days post-discharge. Outcomes were compared between those who received extended prophylaxis and those who did not. Results: A total of 1171 patients met the study criteria. A total of 13 (1.1%) of patients had a documented thromboembolic event and 10 (0.9%) patients had a documented bleeding event within 35 days post-discharge. None of the 132 patients who received extended prophylaxis had a thromboembolic event compared to 13 of 1039 who did not receive extended prophylaxis (0 and 1.3%, respectively; P = .383). The incidence of bleeding was higher among patients who received extended prophylaxis compared to those who did not (3.0% vs 0.6%, P = .019). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that post-discharge extended prophylaxis may be beneficial for select COVID-19 patients, while carefully weighing the risk of bleeding. Application of our findings may assist institutions in development of thromboprophylaxis protocols for discharged COVID-19 patients.


Author(s):  
Gianmarco Lombardi ◽  
Giovanni Gambaro ◽  
Pietro Manuel Ferraro

Introduction Electrolytes disorders are common findings in kidney diseases and might represent a useful biomarker preceding kidney injury. Serum potassium [K+] imbalance is still poorly investigated for association with acute kidney injury (AKI) and most evidence come from intensive care units (ICU). The aim of our study was to comprehensively investigate this association in a large, unselected cohort of hospitalized patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study on the inpatient population admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 with inclusion of adult patients with at least 2 [K+] and 3 serum creatinine (sCr) measurements who did not develop AKI during an initial 10-day window. The outcome of interest was in-hospital AKI. The exposures of interest were [K+] fluctuations and hypo (HoK) and hyperkalemia (HerK). [K+] variability was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between the exposures of interest and development of AKI. Results: 21,830 hospital admissions from 18,836 patients were included in our study. During a median follow-up of 5 (interquartile range [IQR] 7) days, AKI was observed in 555 hospital admissions (2.9%); median time for AKI development was 5 (IQR 7) days. Higher [K+] variability was independently associated with increased risk of AKI with a statistically significant linear trend across groups (p-value = 0.012). A significantly higher incidence of AKI was documented in patients with HerK compared with normokalemia. No statistically significant difference was observed between HoK and HerK (p-value = 0.92). Conclusion: [K+] abnormalities including fluctuations even within the normal range are associated with development of AKI.


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