urinary tract infections
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 870
Anna Kawalec ◽  
Danuta Zwolińska

The microbiome of the urinary tract plays a significant role in maintaining health through the impact on bladder homeostasis. Urobiome is of great importance in maintaining the urothelial integrity and preventing urinary tract infection (UTI), as well as promoting local immune function. Dysbiosis in this area has been linked to an increased risk of UTIs, nephrolithiasis, and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. However, the number of studies in the pediatric population is limited, thus the characteristic of the urobiome in children, its role in a child’s health, and pediatric urologic diseases are not completely understood. This review aims to characterize the healthy urobiome in children, the role of dysbiosis in urinary tract infection, and to summarize the strategies to modification and reshape disease-prone microbiomes in pediatric patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. e2137277
Jesús Sojo-Dorado ◽  
Inmaculada López-Hernández ◽  
Clara Rosso-Fernandez ◽  
Isabel M. Morales ◽  
Zaira R. Palacios-Baena ◽  

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Jitka Krocová ◽  
Radka Prokešová

In the case of the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) related to healthcare provision, high-quality and comprehensively provided nursing care is essential. Implementation of preventive strategies is based on recommended procedures, and the introduction of whole sets of measures has been shown to be effective. The objective of this research is to find out whether the providers of acute bed care have implemented the steps of CAUTI prevention, and specifically which measures leading to improved quality of care in the area of urinary infections are already in place. To determine this, we carried out quantitative research. Data were collected using a questionnaire-based investigation; we used two non-standardised and one standardised questionnaire, and the respondents were general nurses in management positions (n = 186). The results revealed that result-related CAUTI indicators are monitored by only one-third of the respondents, and records of catheterisation indication are not kept by 17.3% of general nurses. The results of the research showed deficiencies in the monitoring of CAUTI outcome and process indicators, and a weakness of the implemented preventive measures is the maintenance of catheterisation documentation. Periodic CAUTI prevention training is not implemented as recommended. It is positive that there are well-working teams of HAI prevention experts in hospitals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Suishan Qiu ◽  
Minghao Chen ◽  
Jun Lyu ◽  
Guangchao Yu ◽  

Abstract Background Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has risen in patients with urinary tract infections. The objective of this study was to determine explore the risk factors of ESBL-E infection in hospitalized patients and establish a predictive model. Methods This retrospective study included all patients with an Enterobacteriaceae-positive urine sample at the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from January 2018 to December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL-E were analyzed, and multivariate analysis of related factors was performed. From these, a nomogram was established to predict the possibility of ESBL-E infection. Simultaneously, susceptibility testing of a broad array of carbapenem antibiotics was performed on ESBL-E cultures to explore possible alternative treatment options. Results Of the total 874 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), 272 (31.1%) were ESBL-E positive. In the predictive analysis, five variables were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E infection: male gender (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.066–2.416), older age (OR = 4.100, 95% CI 1.678–12.343), a hospital stay in preceding 3 months (OR = 1.872, 95% CI 1.141–3.067), invasive urological procedure (OR = 1.810, 95% CI 1.197–2.729), and antibiotic use within the previous 3 months (OR = 1.833, 95% CI 1.055–3.188). In multivariate analysis, the data set was divided into a training set of 611 patients and a validation set of 263 patients The model developed to predict ESBL-E infection was effective, with the AuROC of 0.650 (95% CI 0.577–0.725). Among the antibiotics tested, several showed very high effectiveness against ESBL-E: amikacin (85.7%), carbapenems (83.8%), tigecycline (97.1%) and polymyxin (98.2%). Conclusions The nomogram is useful for estimating a UTI patient’s likelihood of infection with ESBL-E. It could improve clinical decision making and enable more efficient empirical treatment. Empirical treatment may be informed by the results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhenglin Chang ◽  
Jinhu Zhang ◽  
Min Lei ◽  
Zheng Jiang ◽  
Xiangkun Wu ◽  

Coptis chinensis Franch (CCF) is extensively used in the treatment of inflammatory-related diseases. Accumulating studies have previously demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties of CCF, yet data on its exact targets against urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study decodes the potential targets of action of CCF against UTIs by network pharmacology combined with experiment evaluations. Based on the pharmacology network analysis, the current study yielded six core ingredients: quercetin, palmatine (R)-canadine, berlambine, berberine, and berberrubine. The protein–protein interaction network (PPI) was generated by the string database, and then, four targets (IL6, FOS, MYC, and EGFR) were perceived as the major CCF targets using the CytoNCA plug-in. The results of molecular docking showed that the six core constituents of CCF had strong binding affinities toward the four key targets of UTIs after docking into the crystal structure. The enrichment analysis indicated that the possible regulatory mechanisms of CCF against UTIs were based on the modules of inflammation, immune responses, and apoptosis among others. Experimentally, the Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain CFT073 was applied to establish in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo results revealed that the key targets, IL6 and FOS, are significantly upregulated in rat bladder tissues of UTIs, whereas the expression of MYC and EGFR remained steady. Last, in vitro results further confirmed the therapeutic potential of CCF by reducing the expression of IL6 and FOS. In conclusion, IL6 and FOS were generally upregulated in the progression of E. coli–induced UTIs, whereas the CCF intervention exerted a preventive role in host cells stimulated by E. coli, partially due to inhibiting the expression of IL6 and FOS.

Christine E. Kistler ◽  
Christopher J. Wretman ◽  
Sheryl Zimmerman ◽  
Chineme Enyioha ◽  
Kimberly Ward ◽  

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