urinary tract
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2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (2) ◽  
pp. 147-156
Author(s):  
Bahman khalesi ◽  
Seyed Ahmad Reza Fatemi ◽  
Majid Torabi Goudarzi ◽  
Seyed Ali Ghorashi ◽  
Najmeh Motamed ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 673-680
Author(s):  
Min Yang ◽  
Guixi Liu ◽  
Qiao Ying

To construct the tissue engineering urethral material that is closest to the normal urethral structure in the true sense in vitro. Abdominal ADSC from a 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbit was extracted and directly compounded with non-woven polyglycolic acid (PGA) (control group) to induce the differentiation of myoblasts and epithelial-like cells in vitro and shaped into urethral structure lumen Observation group); After Gd chelating protein nano-labeling and VEGF-loaded sustained release, the rabbit model of a long urethral defect was replanted and cultured for 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. There was no difference in urinary tract patency rate, urinary tract infection, and renal dysfunction rate between the two groups (P > 0.05). The urine flow rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the residual volume decreased (P < 0.05). The blood vessel density and CD31 percentage in the observation group increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the conventional ADSC directly in contact with the composite material to construct the urethra, in vitro induction of ADSC to myoblasts and epithelial-like cells respectively, and then use the cell membrane technology to build a tissue engineering urethral material that is closest to the normal urethral structure in the true sense, and loaded with VEGF Loop release technology can significantly improve urodynamic functions, optimize tissue engineering urethral structure and vascularization, and is expected to become a new technology for constructing new tissue engineering urethral materials.


2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jaimie Greasley ◽  
Shivan Goolcharan ◽  
Roger Andrews

In the twin-island state of Trinidad and Tobago, urinary stone analysis is not routinely performed. This study investigates, via powder X-ray diffraction, 52 urinary tract calculi collected from hospitals in Trinidad. Of these, 46 stones were analysed with Rietveld refinement for quantitative analysis and materials characterization. Refined unit-cell, microstructural and weight fraction parameters were obtained, with the last being used for stone classification. The results revealed seven distinct mineralogical phases of varying frequency: calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, 58%), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD, 23%), carbonated apatite (APA, 48%), brushite (BRU, 6%), struvite (STR, 42%), uric acid (UA, 23%) and ammonium acid urate (AAU, 19%). The average refined crystallite sizes were 1352 ± 90 Å (COM), 1921 ± 285 Å (COD), 83 ± 5 Å (APA), 1172 ± 9 Å (BRU), 1843 ± 138 Å (STR), 981 ± 87 Å (UA) and 292 ± 83 Å (AAU). Subsequently, 36.5% of stones were categorized as phosphates, 34.6% as oxalates, 13.5% as uric acid/urates and 15.4% as mixed compositions. The study findings highlight the importance of stone analysis as a necessary step towards disease management of local patients, and endorse the application of Rietveld refinement as a natural extension to diffraction-based kidney stone investigations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi-Xiang Song ◽  
Jiayi Li ◽  
Yiyuan Gu ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  
Paul Abrams ◽  
...  

ObjectiveOur current knowledge on nocturnal enuresis (NE) in adults is scarce due to its uncommon nature. The present study was designed to investigate symptom characteristics and risk factors of NE in adult women to improve the current clinical understanding and management of this rare disease.MethodsOver a 3-year period, we enrolled 70 adult women who complained of bedwetting, with a frequency of at least once per week and a symptom duration of 3 months or longer. Patients were excluded if they had known pregnancy, current urinary tract infection, untreated malignancies, anatomical abnormalities, and irregular sleep cycle. The International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire—female lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder diary were employed to appraise lower urinary tract symptoms and voiding behavior. Urodynamics was performed to assess the bladder function. A linear regression analysis was applied to determine potential risk factors for NE frequency.ResultsAmong the recruited subjects, comorbidities and lower urinary tract symptoms were frequently reported. On bladder diary, patients commonly presented with nocturnal polyuria (NP), reduced nocturnal voided volumes (RNVVs), or both. Urodynamics revealed multiple dysfunctions, namely, detrusor overactivity (DO), urodynamic stress incontinence (USI), reduced compliance, bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor underactivity (DU), and simultaneous DO and DU. Patients with more frequent NE (≥4/week) demonstrated markedly increased body mass index, more comorbid conditions, worse incontinence symptoms, NP or NP plus RNVVs, reduced compliance, and poorer voiding possibly owing to DU. Whereas, RNVVs alone and worse overactive bladder-related parameters were associated with milder NE. Multivariate analysis indicated that frequency/urgency quality of life, incontinence symptom, NP + RNVVs, poor flow, increased bladder sensation, USI, and simultaneous detrusor overactivity plus DU were independent risk factors for NE severity.ConclusionNE in adult women may have both urological and non-urological pathophysiology. Imbalanced circadian urine production, jeopardized continence mechanisms, overactive bladder, and DU-induced poor voiding are major factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of NE in adult women. Focused treatments on restoring these functions should be individually considered.


2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yasintha S. Lugira ◽  
Fransisca D. Kimaro ◽  
Mkhoi L. Mkhoi ◽  
Samuel G. Mafwenga ◽  
Angelina A. Joho ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common and life-threatening bacterial infection among neonates. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, aetiology, and susceptible antimicrobial agents among neonates with UTI. Methods This was a cross-sectional analytical hospital-based study that included 152 neonates with clinical sepsis who were admitted at Dodoma regional referral hospital from January to June 2020. Bacterial growth of 1 × 103 colony forming units/mL of a single uropathogen was used to define the presence of UTI. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 23.0 and multivariate analysis was used to determine the predicting factors of UTI. P <0.05 was regarded statistically significant. Results The prevalence of UTI was 18.4% (28/152). Klebsiella pneumoniae 64.3% (18/28) and Enterobacter spp. 35.7% (10/28) were the bacterial agents isolated. The bacterial isolates were 90%, and 60% sensitive to ciprofloxacin and amikacin, respectively. Low Apgar score (AOR = 12.76, 95% CI = 4.17–39.06, p<0.001), prolonged labour (AOR = 5.36, 95% CI = 1.28–22.52, p = 0.022), positive urine nitrite test (AOR = 26.67, 95% CI = 7.75–91.70, p<0.001), and positive leucocyte esterase test (AOR = 6.64, 95% CI = 1.47–29.97, p = 0.014) were potential predictors of UTI. Conclusion The prevalence of UTI confirmed by urine culture among neonates that were included in the present study indicates that this problem is common in the population where the study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. were the uropathogens which were isolated. Ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and amikacin were sensitive to the isolated uropathogens.


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