Urinary Tract
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2022 ◽  
pp. 114889
Author(s):  
Nguyen JL ◽  
Ricke EA ◽  
Liu TT ◽  
R. Gerona ◽  
L. MacGillivray ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. 253-262
Author(s):  
Mohammed T. Mostafa ◽  
Khalid S. Mustafa ◽  
Brijesh Kumar

Urinary tract infections are very common among people of all ages, but the disease is more prevalent in women, so proper clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and the right treatment are very important to avoid complications and antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to determine the bacterial causes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of UTI patients. Recorded results of 6065 urine sample cultures and their antimicrobial susceptibility tests from the Department of Microbiology in Tobruk Medical Center, Tobruk City, were obtained from September 2016 to December 2018. The data was analyzed and discussed in compare with other studies. The study showed that a UTI is more common in females (78.8%) compared with male patients (21.2%). Gram-negative bacteria accounted for the majority of urinary pathogens (90%), where E. coli alone was (58.4%), klebsiellae (17.4%), Proteus (10.7%), while Pseudomonas species was the least common (3.3%) of the total. While the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus constituted 9.6% of the total. The study was found statistically significant (P=0.000). The most effective antibiotics against all uropathogens were Imipenem and Amikacin, and less effective antibiotics were Ampicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This study concluded that the most common cause of UTI in Tobruk was Escherichia coli and the most effective antibiotics appear to be Imipenem and Amikacin.


Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Omaima A Shaaban ◽  
Nermin A Mahmoud ◽  
Anas A Zeidan ◽  
Nitya Kumar ◽  
Alan C Finan

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 314-324
Author(s):  
Yun Seong Park ◽  
Jin Hee Lee ◽  
Young Ho Kwak ◽  
Jae Yun Jung ◽  
Hyuksool Kwon ◽  
...  

Objective Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a significant issue in young febrile patients due to potential long-term complications. Early detection of UTI is crucial in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). We developed a tool to predict UTIs in children.Methods Clinical data of patients <24 months of age with a fever and UTI or viral infection were extracted from the fever registry collected in two PEDs. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to establish predictors of identified eligible clinical variables for the derivation of the prediction model.Results A total of 1,351 patients were included in the analysis, 643 patients from A hospital (derivation set) and 708 patients from B hospital (validation set). In the derivation set, there were more girls and a lower incidence of a past history of UTI, older age, less fever without source, and more family members with upper respiratory symptoms in the viral infection group. The stepwise regression analysis identified sex (uncircumcised male), age (≤12 months), a past history of UTI, and family members with upper respiratory symptoms as significant variables.Conclusion Young febrile patients in the PED were more likely to have UTIs if they were uncircumcised boys, were younger than 12 months of age, had a past history of UTIs, or did not have families with respiratory infections. This clinical prediction model may help determine whether to perform urinalysis in the PED.


2021 ◽  
pp. 001857872110664
Author(s):  
Wasim S. El Nekidy ◽  
Manal M. Abdelsalam ◽  
Ahmad R. Nusair ◽  
Rania El Lababidi ◽  
Ruba Z. Dajani ◽  
...  

Background: Cefoxitin has shown in vitro activity against Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacterales. Outcome data regarding cefoxitin as a carbapenem sparing agent in the management of urinary tract infections (UTI) are scarce. We sought to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of cefoxitin as compared to ertapenem. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted at our quaternary care institution between May 2015 and March 2019. We identified all patients who received cefoxitin for the treatment of UTI during the study period and used Charlson Comorbidity Index to select a matching cohort from patients who received ertapenem. Primary end points were clinical and microbiological cure. Results: Thirty patients who received cefoxitin were matched with 55 patients who received ertapenem. Clinical cure was marginally in favor of ertapenem: 83.2% in cefoxitin group versus 96.8% in ertapenem group ( P = .042). However, 90-day recurrence was in favor of cefoxitin: 13.5% in cefoxitin group versus 34.8% in ertapenem group ( P = .045). Microbiologic cure was not significant between the 2 groups with 88.6% success in cefoxitin versus 100% in ertapenem. Additionally, the group difference on 30-day recurrence or relapse rates and the 90-day mortality rate were not clinically significant. Conclusion: Cefoxitin achieved similar microbiologic cure rate when compared to ertapenem for the treatment of UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacterales. No significant differences were found in 30-day recurrence/relapse or mortality rates. Larger randomized controlled trials are required to identify the clinical sittings in which cefoxitin could be used as a carbapenem-sparing agent in the treatment of UTI.


Author(s):  
Tünde Kovács ◽  
Edit Mikó ◽  
Gyula Ujlaki ◽  
Heba Yousef ◽  
Viktória Csontos ◽  
...  

AbstractBreast cancer, the most frequent cancer in women, is characterized by pathological changes to the microbiome of breast tissue, the tumor, the gut, and the urinary tract. Changes to the microbiome are determined by the stage, grade, origin (NST/lobular), and receptor status of the tumor. This year is the 50th anniversary of when Hill and colleagues first showed that changes to the gut microbiome can support breast cancer growth, namely that the oncobiome can reactivate excreted estrogens. The currently available human and murine data suggest that oncobiosis is not a cause of breast cancer, but can support its growth. Furthermore, preexisting dysbiosis and the predisposition to cancer are transplantable. The breast’s and breast cancer’s inherent microbiome and the gut microbiome promote breast cancer growth by reactivating estrogens, rearranging cancer cell metabolism, bringing about a more inflammatory microenvironment, and reducing the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Furthermore, the gut microbiome can produce cytostatic metabolites, the production of which decreases or blunts breast cancer. The role of oncobiosis in the urinary tract is largely uncharted. Oncobiosis in breast cancer supports invasion, metastasis, and recurrence by supporting cellular movement, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell function, and diapedesis. Finally, the oncobiome can modify the pharmacokinetics of chemotherapeutic drugs. The microbiome provides novel leverage on breast cancer that should be exploited for better management of the disease.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Author(s):  
Carrie A. Palm ◽  
Noah E. Canvasser ◽  
Willian T. N. Culp

Urine retention secondary to neoplastic obstructions of the upper and lower urinary tracts is a life-threatening condition in both humans and companion animals. Stents can be placed to temporarily or permanently open obstructed urinary tract lumens and are often able to be placed using minimally invasive techniques with guidance via ultrasonography or fluoroscopy. The literature for these techniques is vast for humans and growing for companion animals. The below review provides a discussion of the principles of stenting and types of ureteral and urethral stents, as well as the techniques for placing these stents in humans and companion animals.


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