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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Jaymi Tan ◽  
Yock Ping Chow ◽  
Norziha Zainul Abidin ◽  
Kian Meng Chang ◽  
Veena Selvaratnam ◽  

Abstract Background The Philadelphia (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), namely essential thrombocythaemia (ET), polycythaemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), are a group of chronic clonal haematopoietic disorders that have the propensity to advance into bone marrow failure or acute myeloid leukaemia; often resulting in fatality. Although driver mutations have been identified in these MPNs, subtype-specific markers of the disease have yet to be discovered. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology can potentially improve the clinical management of MPNs by allowing for the simultaneous screening of many disease-associated genes. Methods The performance of a custom, in-house designed 22-gene NGS panel was technically validated using reference standards across two independent replicate runs. The panel was subsequently used to screen a total of 10 clinical MPN samples (ET n = 3, PV n = 3, PMF n = 4). The resulting NGS data was then analysed via a bioinformatics pipeline. Results The custom NGS panel had a detection limit of 1% variant allele frequency (VAF). A total of 20 unique variants with VAFs above 5% (4 of which were putatively novel variants with potential biological significance) and one pathogenic variant with a VAF of between 1 and 5% were identified across all of the clinical MPN samples. All single nucleotide variants with VAFs ≥ 15% were confirmed via Sanger sequencing. Conclusions The high fidelity of the NGS analysis and the identification of known and novel variants in this study cohort support its potential clinical utility in the management of MPNs. However, further optimisation is needed to avoid false negatives in regions with low sequencing coverage, especially for the detection of driver mutations in MPL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ying Chen ◽  
Xiaoying Cui ◽  
Di Wang ◽  
Guojie Xia ◽  
Minyan Xing ◽  

PurposeLarge cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and classic large cell carcinoma (LCC) are two distinct entities with different histological and biological characteristics. However, the mutational profiles and the clinical behavior of the two subtypes of lung cancer remain to be explored.Patients and MethodsPathological diagnoses of all screened patients were finally confirmed by three or four experienced pathologists. Patients with uncertain pathological diagnoses were excluded. Finally, we genetically profiled ten patients with LCNEC and seven with LCC. ALL patients were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) test, which included nine patients sequenced with a 139-gene panel and eight patients with a 425-gene panel. Including only intersected mutations from these two panels, survival analysis was further conducted.ResultsBoth LCNEC and LCC showed high prevalence in male patients, with no clear association with smoking history. Potential targetable mutations in KRAS and RET were detected in the study cohort. However, LCNEC and LCC showed distinct mutational profiles with an enrichment of RB1/TP53 co-mutations in a subset of LCNEC patients. SMARCA4 and KEAP1 mutations were exclusively found in LCC patients, and RICTOR, BRAF, ROS1 and TET2 mutations were only detected in LCNEC. LCC patients in the cohort had shorter survival compared to LCNEC patients (p=0.006). Survival analysis revealed an association between SMARCA4 mutations and poor outcome in the study cohort and in the LCC subset. Mutations in BRAF were associated with a trend of increased survival in the study cohort, as well as in the LCNEC subset. Finally, TET2 mutations were associated with poor outcome in the LCNEC cohort.ConclusionLCC and LCNEC were both heterogeneous diseases with limited treatment options. Our study identified potential targetable mutations and prognostic biomarkers that might provide more therapeutic options and improve individualized patient care.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Peter Hermann ◽  
Anna Villar-Piqué ◽  
Matthias Schmitz ◽  
Christian Schmidt ◽  
Daniela Varges ◽  

Abstract Background Lipocalin-2 is a glycoprotein that is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the brain, it is expressed in response to vascular and other brain injury, as well as in Alzheimer’s disease in reactive microglia and astrocytes. Plasma Lipocalin-2 has been proposed as a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease but available data is scarce and inconsistent. Thus, we evaluated plasma Lipocalin-2 in the context of Alzheimer’s disease, differential diagnoses, other biomarkers, and clinical data. Methods For this two-center case-control study, we analyzed Lipocalin-2 concentrations in plasma samples from a cohort of n = 407 individuals. The diagnostic groups comprised Alzheimer’s disease (n = 74), vascular dementia (n = 28), other important differential diagnoses (n = 221), and healthy controls (n = 84). Main results were validated in an independent cohort with patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n = 19), mild cognitive impairment (n = 27), and healthy individuals (n = 28). Results Plasma Lipocalin-2 was significantly lower in Alzheimer’s disease compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) and all other groups (p < 0.01) except for mixed dementia (vascular and Alzheimer’s pathologic changes). Areas under the curve from receiver operation characteristics for the discrimination of Alzheimer’s disease and healthy controls were 0.783 (95%CI: 0.712–0.855) in the study cohort and 0.766 (95%CI: 0.627–0.905) in the validation cohort. The area under the curve for Alzheimer’s disease versus vascular dementia was 0.778 (95%CI: 0.667–0.890) in the study cohort. In Alzheimer’s disease patients, plasma Lipocalin2 did not show significant correlation with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration and AD-related pathology (total-tau, phosphorylated tau protein, and beta-amyloid 1-42), cognitive status (Mini Mental Status Examination scores), APOE genotype, or presence of white matter hyperintensities. Interestingly, Lipocalin 2 was lower in patients with rapid disease course compared to patients with non-rapidly progressive Alzheimer’s disease (p = 0.013). Conclusions Plasma Lipocalin-2 has potential as a diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease and seems to be independent from currently employed biomarkers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ashish A. Ankola ◽  
David K. Bailly ◽  
Ron W. Reeder ◽  
Katherine Cashen ◽  
Heidi J. Dalton ◽  

Background: Bleeding is a common complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for pediatric cardiac patients. We aimed to identify anticoagulation practices, cardiac diagnoses, and surgical variables associated with bleeding during pediatric cardiac ECMO by combining two established databases, the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN) Bleeding and Thrombosis in ECMO (BATE) and the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry.Methods: All children (&lt;19 years) with a primary cardiac diagnosis managed on ECMO included in BATE from six centers were analyzed. ELSO Registry criteria for bleeding events included pulmonary or intracranial bleeding, or red blood cell transfusion &gt;80 ml/kg on any ECMO day. Bleeding odds were assessed on ECMO Day 1 and from ECMO Day 2 onwards with multivariable logistic regression.Results: There were 187 children with 114 (61%) bleeding events in the study cohort. Biventricular congenital heart disease (94/187, 50%) and cardiac medical diagnoses (75/187, 40%) were most common, and 48 (26%) patients were cannulated directly from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Bleeding events were not associated with achieving pre-specified therapeutic ranges of activated clotting time (ACT) or platelet levels. In multivariable analysis, elevated INR and fibrinogen were associated with bleeding events (OR 1.1, CI 1.0–1.3, p = 0.02; OR 0.77, CI 0.6–0.9, p = 0.004). Bleeding events were also associated with clinical site (OR 4.8, CI 2.0–11.1, p &lt; 0.001) and central cannulation (OR 1.75, CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.05) but not with cardiac diagnosis, surgical complexity, or cannulation from CPB. Bleeding odds on ECMO day 1 were increased in patients with central cannulation (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.15–7.08, p = 0.023) and those cannulated directly from CPB (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.02–11.61, p = 0.047).Conclusions: Bleeding events in children with cardiac diagnoses supported on ECMO were associated with central cannulation strategy and coagulopathy, but were not modulated by achieving pre-specified therapeutic ranges of monitoring assays.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009628
Zhi Ming Xu ◽  
Sina Rüeger ◽  
Michaela Zwyer ◽  
Daniela Brites ◽  
Hellen Hiza ◽  

Genome-wide association studies rely on the statistical inference of untyped variants, called imputation, to increase the coverage of genotyping arrays. However, the results are often suboptimal in populations underrepresented in existing reference panels and array designs, since the selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may fail to capture population-specific haplotype structures, hence the full extent of common genetic variation. Here, we propose to sequence the full genomes of a small subset of an underrepresented study cohort to inform the selection of population-specific add-on tag SNPs and to generate an internal population-specific imputation reference panel, such that the remaining array-genotyped cohort could be more accurately imputed. Using a Tanzania-based cohort as a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the validity of our approach by showing improvements in imputation accuracy after the addition of our designed add-on tags to the base H3Africa array.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zhichao Tian ◽  
Shuping Dong ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Shilei Gao ◽  
Yonghao Yang ◽  

Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that combination therapy with nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor is safe and efficacious in treating many types of malignant tumors. However, clinical data demonstrating the effect of this treatment combination for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are currently limited. Methods The clinical data of patients with metastatic STS who received nab-paclitaxel plus PD-1 inhibitor (sintilimab) therapy between January 2019 and February 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The effectiveness and safety of the combined treatment were evaluated in terms of the median progression-free survival (PFS), estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The univariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the relationship between clinicopathological parameters and PFS. All statistical analyses were two-sided; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 28 patients treated with nab-paclitaxel plus sintilimab were enrolled in this study. The objective response rate was 25%, the disease control rate was 50%, and the median PFS was 2.25 months (95% CI = 1.8–3.0 months). The most common grade 1 or 2 adverse events (AEs) were alopecia (89.3%; 25/28), leukopenia (25.0%; 7/28), fatigue (21.4%; 6/28), anemia (21.4%; 6/28), and nausea (21.4%; 6/28). The most common grade 3 AEs were neutropenia (10.7%; 3/28) and peripheral neuropathy (10.7%; 3/28). No grade 4 AEs were observed. Among the present study cohort, patients with angiosarcoma (n = 5) had significantly longer PFS (P = 0.012) than patients with other pathological subtypes, including undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (n = 7), epithelioid sarcoma (n = 5), fibrosarcoma (n = 4), synovial sarcoma (n = 3), leiomyosarcoma (n = 2), pleomorphic liposarcoma (n = 1), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 1); those who experienced three or more AEs had significantly longer median PFS than those who experienced less than three AEs (P = 0.018). Conclusion Nab-paclitaxel plus PD-1 inhibitor is a promising treatment regimen for advanced STS. Randomized controlled clinical trials are required to further demonstrate its efficacy and optimal application scenario.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jiexia Zhang ◽  
Shuangfeng Tang ◽  
Chunning Zhang ◽  
Mingyao Li ◽  
Yating Zheng ◽  

BackgroundPALB2, a gene in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway of the DNA damage response (DDR), is associated with the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and PARP inhibitor therapy in several tumors. However, the PALB2 characteristics, its correlation with immunotherapy biomarker, and the prognostic effect of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were unknown.MethodsTumor tissue samples from advanced Chinese NSCLC patients were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) (panel on 381/733-gene). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is defined as the total number of somatic non-synonymous mutations in the coding region. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was evaluated by NGS of 500 known MSI loci. Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (Dako 22C3 or SP263). One independent cohort (Rizvi2018.NSCLC.240.NGS cohort) containing genomic and clinical data from 240 patients with advanced NSCLC and two cohorts (the OAK and POPLAR study cohort) containing genomic and clinical data from 429 patients with advanced NSCLC were used to analyze the prognostic effect of PALB2 on immunotherapy.ResultsGenetic mutation of 5,227 NSCLC patients were analyzed using NGS, of which 162 (3.1%) harbored germline PALB2 mutation (PALB2gmut) and 87 (1.66%) harbored somatic PALB2 mutation (PALB2smut). In NSCLC patients with PALB2gmut and PALB2smut, the most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (65%, 64%). PALB2smut (14.52 Muts/Mb) was associated with higher TMB (p &lt; 0.001) than PALB wild-type (PALB2wt) (6.15 Muts/Mb). However, there was no significant difference in TMB between PALB2gmut (6.45 Muts/Mb) and PALB2wt (6.15 Muts/Mb) (p = 0.64). There was no difference in PD-L1 expression among PALB2gmut, PALB2smut, and PALB2wt. In the Rizvi2018.NSCLC.240.NGS cohort, there was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =1.06, p = 0.93) between PALB2 mutation (3.15 months) and PALB2wt (3.17 months). The OAK and POPLAR study cohort of NSCLC patients showed that there was no difference in overall survival (OS) (HR =1.1, p = 0.75) between PALB2 mutation (10.38 months) and PALB2wt (11.07 months).ConclusionsThese findings suggest that PALB2 may not be used as a biomarker for determining prognosis on immunotherapy in NSCLC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 93 ◽  
pp. 229-233
Hans Peter Bögl ◽  
Georg Zdolsek ◽  
Lukas Barnisin ◽  
Michael Möller ◽  
Jörg Schilcher

Background and purpose — To continuously assess the incidence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the population is important, to allow the evaluation of the risks and benefits associated with osteoporosis treatment. Therefore, we investigated the possibility to use the Swedish Fracture Register (SFR) as a surveillance tool for AFFs in the population and to explore means of improvement. Patients and methods — All AFF registrations in the SFR from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018 were enrolled in the study. For these patients, radiographs were obtained and combined with radiographs from 176 patients with normal femoral fractures, to form the study cohort. All images were reviewed and classified into AFFs or normal femur fractures by 2 experts in the field (gold-standard classification) and 1 orthopedic resident educated on the specific radiographic features of AFF (educated-user classification). Furthermore, we estimated the incidence rate of AFFs in the population captured by the register through comparison with a previous cohort and calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and, where possible, the inter-observer agreement (Cohen’s kappa) between the different classifications. Results — Of the 178 available patients with AFF in the SFR, 104 patients were classified as AFF using the goldstandard classification, and 89 using the educated-user classification. The PPV increased from 0.58 in the SFR classification to 0.93 in the educated-user classification. The interobserver agreement between the gold-standard classification and the educated-user classification was 0.81. Interpretation — With a positive predictive value of 0.58 the Swedish Fracture Register outperforms radiology reports and reports to the Swedish Medical Products Agency on adverse drug reactions as a diagnostic tool to identify atypical femoral fractures.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217041
Talat Islam ◽  
Jessica Braymiller ◽  
Sandrah P Eckel ◽  
Feifei Liu ◽  
Alayna P Tackett ◽  

RationaleDespite high prevalence of e-cigarette use (vaping), little is currently known regarding the health effects of secondhand nicotine vape exposure.ObjectiveTo investigate whether exposure to secondhand nicotine vape exposure is associated with adverse respiratory health symptoms among young adults.MethodWe investigated the effect of secondhand nicotine vape exposure on annually reported wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath in the prospective Southern California Children Health Study cohort. Data were collected from study participants (n=2097) with repeated annual surveys from 2014 (average age: 17.3 years) to 2019 (average age: 21.9). We used mixed effect logistic regression to evaluate the association between secondhand nicotine vape and respiratory symptoms after controlling for relevant confounders.ResultsPrevalence of secondhand nicotine vape increased from 11.7% to 15.6% during the study period in this population. Prevalence of wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath ranged from 12.3% to 14.9%, 19.4% to 26.0% and 16.5% to 18.1%, respectively, during the study period. Associations of secondhand nicotine vape exposure with bronchitic symptoms (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and shortness of breath (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21) were observed after controlling for vaping, active and passive exposure to tobacco or cannabis, and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity and parental education). Stronger associations were observed when analysis was restricted to participants who were neither smokers nor vapers. There were no associations with wheezing after adjustment for confounders.ConclusionSecondhand nicotine vape exposure was associated with increased risk of bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath among young adults.

Daniel Medenwald ◽  
Thomas Brunner ◽  
Hans Christiansen ◽  
Ulrich Kisser ◽  
Sina Mansoorian ◽  

Abstract Objective To assess the change in inpatient radiotherapy related to COVID-19 lockdown measures during the first wave of the pandemic in 2020. Methods We included cases hospitalized between January 1 and August 31, 2018–2020, with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of C00–C13, C32 (head and neck cancer, HNC) and C53 (cervical cancer, CC). Data collection was conducted within the Medical Informatics Initiative. Outcomes were fractions and admissions. Controlling for decreasing hospital admissions during holidays, calendar weeks of 2018/2019 were aligned to Easter 2020. A lockdown period (LP; 16/03/2020–02/08/2020) and a return-to-normal period (RNP; 04/05/2020–02/08/2020) were defined. The study sample comprised a control (admission 2018/19) and study cohort (admission 2020). We computed weekly incidence and IR ratios from generalized linear mixed models. Results We included 9365 (CC: 2040, HNC: 7325) inpatient hospital admissions from 14 German university hospitals. For CC, fractions decreased by 19.97% in 2020 compared to 2018/19 in the LP. In the RNP the reduction was 28.57% (p < 0.001 for both periods). LP fractions for HNC increased by 10.38% (RNP: 9.27%; p < 0.001 for both periods). Admissions for CC decreased in both periods (LP: 10.2%, RNP: 22.14%), whereas for HNC, admissions increased (LP: 2.25%, RNP: 1.96%) in 2020. Within LP, for CC, radiotherapy admissions without brachytherapy were reduced by 23.92%, whereas surgery-related admissions increased by 20.48%. For HNC, admissions with radiotherapy increased by 13.84%, while surgery-related admissions decreased by 11.28% in the same period. Conclusion Related to the COVID-19 lockdown in an inpatient setting, radiotherapy for HNC treatment became a more frequently applied modality, while admissions of CC cases decreased.

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