Cerebral Palsy
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2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 54-61
E. A. Klyuev ◽  
G. E. Sheiko ◽  
M. G. Dunaev ◽  
E. V. Lobanova ◽  
M. V. Rasteryaeva ◽  

Aim. To perform quantitative evaluation of the degree of white matter tract abnormalities in children with spastic cerebral palsy by magnetic resonance tractography to determine severity of the disease, as well as to carry out a dynamic assessment of treatment effectiveness.Materials and methods. The study included 46 children (32 males, 14 females; average age 5.4 ± 1.1 years). The participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group consisted of 23 children with spastic cerebral palsy. The control group included 23 children without any neurological disorder. Examination of the brain was performed on the Siemens Essenza 1,5 Т system (Siemens, Germany) and included magnetic resonance tractography to reconstruct the major white matter tracts. The number of fibers, average fractional anisotropy value, apparent diffusion coefficient, and coefficient of myelination of major white matter tracts in the brain were calculated and analyzed.Results. We found a significant difference in the above-stated parameters between the groups. The experimental group showed a decrease in the absolute number of fibers at the central and posterior segments of the corpus callosum, corticospinal tracts, and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Besides, we detected a decrease in fractional anisotropy at 2–5 segments of the corpus callosum and right lateral corticospinal tract, an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient at 2, 4, and 5 segments of the corpus callosum and left lateral corticospinal tract, and a decrease in the myelination coefficient in all the examined tracts, except for superior longitudinal fasciculus. We revealed a positive correlation between the intensity of the motor disturbance and the coefficient of myelination at the anterior corpus callosum and inferior longitudinal fasciculus.Conclusion. Magnetic resonance tractography is an informative technique for unbiased evaluation of white matter tract anatomy, as well the level and degree of motor tract damage. The most useful characteristics of white matter tract anatomy are the absolute number of fibers in the tract, fractional anisotropy, and coefficient of myelination. Some of them correlated with the intensity of motor disturbance, so they can be regarded as potential predictors of rehabilitation potential.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Olivia Millard ◽  
Ebony Lindor ◽  
Nicole Papadopoulos ◽  
Carmel Sivaratnam ◽  
Jane McGillivray ◽  

AllPlay Dance is founded on a collaborative approach to research between the School of Psychology and the School of Communication of Creative Arts, both of Deakin University. The research is also undertaken in partnership with professional ballet company, Queensland Ballet. This paper describes the development and execution of two pilot projects for children with disability, utilizing a dance studies methodology. The projects were conducted in 2018 and 2019 for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and autism spectrum disorder, as part of the AllPlay Dance program. Participants with disabilities ranged in age from 7 to 12 years. As well as describing the approach to the program development, we discuss the involvement of older and more experienced buddies who were included as a method to support the participation in dance of children with disabilities. We will also describe the diffusion of authorship in the making of group dances as a tool for inclusion and the premise of dance as a social practice in which participants inter-subjectively generate meaning and sense making. The AllPlay Dance projects were developed as a series of dance classes in which participants worked with set or learned movement material, dance improvisation, and tasks for movement generation in order to collectively generate a dance for performance. This paper focuses on the aim of developing inclusive approaches to dance classes that challenge “ableist” notions of dance as spectacle to enable to work toward building transferable programs to allow all children who so desire and to participate in dance in their communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Ana Alves-Pinto ◽  
Mónica Emch ◽  
Renée Lampe

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing motor and often additional disabilities, resulting from insult to the developing brain and remaining throughout life. Imaging-detected alterations in white matter microstructure affect not only motor but also sensorimotor pathways. In this context, piano training is believed to promote sensorimotor rehabilitation for the multiplicity of skills and neuronal processes it involves and integrates. However, it remains unknown how this contribution may occur. Here, effects of 1.5 years of piano training in an adolescent with unilateral CP were investigated through tests of manual function and by comparing fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial and axial diffusivity in neuronal pathways pre- vs. post-training. In the absence of a control condition and of data from a larger cohort, both probabilistic neighborhood and deterministic tractography were employed to reduce bias associated with a single-case analysis and/or with user-input. No changes in manual function were detected with the tests performed. In turn, the two tractography methods yielded similar values for all studied metrics. Furthermore, post-hoc analyses yielded increased fractional anisotropy accompanied by decreases in mean diffusivity in the bilateral dorsal cingulate that were at least as large as and more consistent than in the bilateral corticospinal tract. This suggests contributions of training to the development of non-motor processes. Reduced anisotropy and correspondingly high mean diffusivity were observed for the bilateral corticospinal tract as well as for the right arcuate and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, two sensory processing-related pathways, confirming the importance of sensorimotor rehabilitation in CP.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 3676
Israt Jahan ◽  
Mohammad Muhit ◽  
Denny Hardianto ◽  
Francis Laryea ◽  
Samuel Kofi Amponsah ◽  

Background: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Data from children with confirmed CP aged <18 years registered into the Global LMIC CP Register (GLM CPR) from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Ghana were included. Anthropometric measurements were collected, and nutritional status was determined following the WHO guidelines. Descriptive statistics and adjusted logistic regression were used to describe the nutritional status and identify predictors of malnutrition. Results: Between January 2015 and December 2020, 3619 children with CP were registered into the GLM CPR (median age at assessment: 7.0 years, 39% female). Overall, 72–98% of children from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, and Ghana had at least one form of undernutrition. The adjusted analysis showed, older age, low maternal education, spastic tri/quadriplegia, and Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) levels III–V were significant predictors of underweight and stunting among children with CP in Bangladesh. In Nepal, female children, GMFCS III–V had higher odds of underweight and stunting. In Ghana, low maternal education was significantly associated with underweight, whereas older age and the presence of associated impairments were the significant predictors of stunting among children with CP. Having a GMFCS of III–V increased the odds of being underweight among children in Indonesia; however, no predictors were identified for stunting, as nearly all children with CP registered from Indonesia were stunted. Conclusion: Most children with CP in GLM CPR had undernutrition. Maternal education and moderate-to-severe motor impairment (GMFCS III–V) were significant predictors. Practical nutrition education to mothers/caregivers and management guidelines according to the motor severity using local resources could improve the nutritional outcome of children with CP in LMICs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Yuma Kitase ◽  
Eric M. Chin ◽  
Sindhu Ramachandra ◽  
Christopher Burkhardt ◽  
Nethra K. Madurai ◽  

Abstract Background Chorioamnionitis (CHORIO) is a principal risk factor for preterm birth and is the most common pathological abnormality found in the placentae of preterm infants. CHORIO has a multitude of effects on the maternal–placental–fetal axis including profound inflammation. Cumulatively, these changes trigger injury in the developing immune and central nervous systems, thereby increasing susceptibility to chronic sequelae later in life. Despite this and reports of neural–immune changes in children with cerebral palsy, the extent and chronicity of the peripheral immune and neuroinflammatory changes secondary to CHORIO has not been fully characterized. Methods We examined the persistence and time course of peripheral immune hyper-reactivity in an established and translational model of perinatal brain injury (PBI) secondary to CHORIO. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats underwent laparotomy on embryonic day 18 (E18, preterm equivalent). Uterine arteries were occluded for 60 min, followed by intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected at young adult (postnatal day P60) and middle-aged equivalents (P120). Serum and PBMCs secretome chemokines and cytokines were assayed using multiplex electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to interrogate immune cell populations. Results Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, C–X–C Motif Chemokine Ligand 1 (CXCL1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C–C motif chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) were significantly higher in CHORIO animals compared to sham controls at P60. Notably, CHORIO PBMCs were primed. Specifically, they were hyper-reactive and secreted more inflammatory mediators both at baseline and when stimulated in vitro. While serum levels of cytokines normalized by P120, PBMCs remained primed, and hyper-reactive with a robust pro-inflammatory secretome concomitant with a persistent change in multiple T cell populations in CHORIO animals. Conclusions The data indicate that an in utero inflammatory insult leads to neural–immune changes that persist through adulthood, thereby conferring vulnerability to brain and immune system injury throughout the lifespan. This unique molecular and cellular immune signature including sustained peripheral immune hyper-reactivity (SPIHR) and immune cell priming may be a viable biomarker of altered inflammatory responses following in utero insults and advances our understanding of the neuroinflammatory cascade that leads to perinatal brain injury and later neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
Mohd Azmeer Abu Bakar ◽  
Narimah Samat ◽  
Nik Soriani Yaacob

Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common causes of disability in childhood, leading to functional limitations and poor nutritional status. Families with CP children face challenges in providing proper care. Thus, accessibility of CP patients to health facilities is important to ensure that they can maintain regular visits to health facilities for proper treatment and care. The current study aimed to map the spatial distribution of CP in Johor, Malaysia and measure the accessibility of CP patients to nearby hospitals, health clinics and community-based rehabilitation centres. The study is based on CP cases in 2017 obtained from the Department of Social Welfare, Malaysia and analysed using the average nearest neighbour, buffer analysis and Kernel Density Estimation. Results indicate that there is generally good access to health care services for many of the CP children in Johor, but for 25% of those living more than 10 km away from the health clinics or community-based rehabilitation centres, regular visits can be a problem. This information should be used for targeted intervention and planning for health care strategies. Furthermore, information on hospital accessibility of CP children would allow for planning of proper and regular treatment for these patients. The study has shown that it is possible to improve the understanding of the distribution of CP cases by integrating spatial analysis using geographical information systems without relying on official information about the density of populations.

Eline Flux ◽  
Marjolein M. van der Krogt ◽  
Jaap Harlaar ◽  
Annemieke I. Buizer ◽  
Lizeth H. Sloot

Abstract Background As hyperactive muscle stretch reflexes hinder movement in patients with central nervous system disorders, they are a common target of treatment. To improve treatment evaluation, hyperactive reflexes should be assessed during activities as walking rather than passively. This study systematically explores the feasibility, reliability and validity of sudden treadmill perturbations to evoke and quantify calf muscle stretch reflexes during walking in children with neurological disorders. Methods We performed an observational cross-sectional study including 24 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 6–16 years) and 14 typically developing children (TD; 6–15 years). Short belt accelerations were applied at three different intensities while children walked at comfortable speed. Lower leg kinematics, musculo-tendon lengthening and velocity, muscle activity and spatiotemporal parameters were measured to analyze perturbation responses. Results We first demonstrated protocol feasibility: the protocol was completed by all but three children who ceased participation due to fatigue. All remaining children were able to maintain their gait pattern during perturbation trials without anticipatory adaptations in ankle kinematics, spatiotemporal parameters and muscle activity. Second, we showed the protocol’s reliability: there was no systematic change in muscle response over time (P = 0.21–0.54) and a bootstrapping procedure indicated sufficient number of perturbations, as the last perturbation repetition only reduced variability by ~ 2%. Third, we evaluated construct validity by showing that responses comply with neurophysiological criteria for stretch reflexes: perturbations superimposed calf muscle lengthening (P < 0.001 for both CP and TD) in all but one participant. This elicited increased calf muscle activity (359 ± 190% for CP and 231 ± 68% for TD, both P < 0.001) in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle, which increased with perturbation intensity (P < 0.001), according to the velocity-dependent nature of stretch reflexes. Finally, construct validity was shown from a clinical perspective: stretch reflexes were 1.7 times higher for CP than TD for the gastrocnemius medialis muscle (P = 0.017). Conclusions The feasibility and reliability of the protocol, as well as the construct validity—shown by the exaggerated velocity-dependent nature of the measured responses—strongly support the use of treadmill perturbations to quantify stretch hyperreflexia during gait. We therefore provided a framework which can be used to inform clinical decision making and treatment evaluation.

2021 ◽  
Shelly S. Selph ◽  
Andrea C. Skelly ◽  
Ngoc Wasson ◽  
Joseph R. Dettori ◽  
Erika D. Brodt ◽  

Objectives. Although the health benefits of physical activity are well described for the general population, less is known about the benefits and harms of physical activity in people dependent upon, partially dependent upon, or at risk for needing a wheelchair. This systematic review summarizes the evidence for physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury regardless of current use or nonuse of a wheelchair. Data sources. We searched MEDLINE®, CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase®, and Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source from 2008 through November 2020, reference lists, and clinical trial registries. Review methods. Predefined criteria were used to select randomized controlled trials, quasiexperimental nonrandomized trials, and cohort studies that addressed the benefits and harms of observed physical activity (at least 10 sessions on 10 different days of movement using more energy than rest) in participants with multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury. Individual study quality (risk of bias) and the strength of bodies of evidence for key outcomes were assessed using prespecified methods. Dual review procedures were used. Effects were analyzed by etiology of impairment and physical activity modality, such as treadmill, aquatic exercises, and yoga, using qualitative, and when appropriate, quantitative synthesis using random effects meta-analyses. Results. We included 146 randomized controlled trials, 15 quasiexperimental nonrandomized trials, and 7 cohort studies (168 studies in 197 publications). More studies enrolled participants with multiple sclerosis (44%) than other conditions, followed by cerebral palsy (38%) and spinal cord injury (18%). Most studies were rated fair quality (moderate risk of bias). The majority of the evidence was rated low strength. • In participants with multiple sclerosis, walking ability may be improved with treadmill training and multimodal exercise regimens that include strength training; function may be improved with treadmill training, balance exercises, and motion gaming; balance is likely improved with postural control exercises (which may also reduce risk of falls) and may be improved with aquatic exercises, robot-assisted gait training, treadmill training, motion gaming, and multimodal exercises; activities of daily living may be improved with aquatic therapy; sleep may be improved with aerobic exercises; aerobic fitness may be improved with multimodal exercises; and female sexual function may be improved with aquatic exercise. • In participants with cerebral palsy, balance may be improved with hippotherapy and motion gaming, and function may be improved with cycling, treadmill training, and hippotherapy. • In participants with spinal cord injury, evidence suggested that activities of daily living may be improved with robot-assisted gait training. • When randomized controlled trials were pooled across types of exercise, physical activity interventions were found to improve walking in multiple sclerosis and likely improve balance and depression in multiple sclerosis. Physical activity may improve function and aerobic fitness in people with cerebral palsy or spinal cord injury. When studies of populations with multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy were combined, evidence indicated dance may improve function. • Evidence on long-term health outcomes was not found for any analysis groups. For intermediate outcomes such as blood pressure, lipid profile, and blood glucose, there was insufficient evidence from which to draw conclusions. There was inadequate reporting of adverse events in many trials. Conclusions. Physical activity was associated with improvements in walking ability, general function, balance (including fall risk), depression, sleep, activities of daily living, female sexual function, and aerobic capacity, depending on population enrolled and type of exercise utilized. No studies reported long-term cardiovascular or metabolic disease health outcomes. Future trials could alter these findings; further research is needed to examine health outcomes, and to understand the magnitude and clinical importance of benefits seen in intermediate outcomes.

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