tract infections
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 870
Anna Kawalec ◽  
Danuta Zwolińska

The microbiome of the urinary tract plays a significant role in maintaining health through the impact on bladder homeostasis. Urobiome is of great importance in maintaining the urothelial integrity and preventing urinary tract infection (UTI), as well as promoting local immune function. Dysbiosis in this area has been linked to an increased risk of UTIs, nephrolithiasis, and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract. However, the number of studies in the pediatric population is limited, thus the characteristic of the urobiome in children, its role in a child’s health, and pediatric urologic diseases are not completely understood. This review aims to characterize the healthy urobiome in children, the role of dysbiosis in urinary tract infection, and to summarize the strategies to modification and reshape disease-prone microbiomes in pediatric patients with recurrent urinary tract infections.

BJGP Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. BJGPO.2021.0171
Hanne Ann Boon ◽  
Jan Y Verbakel ◽  
Tine De Burghgraeve ◽  
Ann Van den Bruel

BackgroundDiagnosing childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) is challenging.AimValidate clinical prediction rules (UTIcalc, DUTY, Gorelick) for paediatric UTIs in primary care.Design & settingPost-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study in 39 general practices and 2 emergency departments (Belgium, March 2019 to March 2020).MethodPhysicians recruited acutely ill children ≤18 years and sampled urine systematically for culture. Per rule, we performed an apparent validation; calculated sensitivities and specificities with 95%CI per threshold in the target group. For the DUTY coefficient-based algorithm, we performed a logistic calibration and calculated the Area Under the Curve with 95%CI.ResultsOf 834 children ≤18 years recruited, there were 297 children <5 years. The UTIcalc and Gorelick score had high to moderate sensitivity and low specificity (UTIcalc ≥2%) 75%; and 16% respectively; Gorelick (≥2 variables) 91%; and 8%. In contrast, the DUTY score ≥5 points had low sensitivity (8%), but high specificity (99%). Urine samples would be obtained in 72% vs 38% (UTIcalc), 92% vs 38% (Gorelick) or 1% vs 32% (DUTY) of children, compared to routine care. The number of missed infections per score was 1/4 (UTIcalc), 2/23 (Gorelick) and 24/26 (DUTY). The UTIcalc+ dipstick model had high sensitivity and specificity (100%; and 91%); resulting in no missed cases and 59% (95%CI 49%–68%) of antibiotics prescribed inappropriately.ConclusionIn this study, the UTIcalc and Gorelick score were useful for ruling out UTI but resulted in high urine sampling rates. The DUTY score had low sensitivity, meaning that 92% of UTIs would be missed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 172
Bruna De Lucca Caetano ◽  
Marta de Oliveira Domingos ◽  
Miriam Aparecida da Silva ◽  
Jessika Cristina Alves da Silva ◽  
Juliana Moutinho Polatto ◽  

The secretion of α-hemolysin by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is commonly associated with the severity of urinary tract infections, which makes it a predictor of poor prognosis among patients. Accordingly, this toxin has become a target for diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions. However, there are several obstacles associated with the process of α-hemolysin purification, therefore limiting its utilization in scientific investigations. In order to overcome the problems associated with α-hemolysin expression, after in silico prediction, a 20.48 kDa soluble α-hemolysin recombinant denoted rHlyA was constructed. This recombinant is composed by a 182 amino acid sequence localized in the aa542–723 region of the toxin molecule. The antigenic determinants of the rHlyA were estimated by bioinformatics analysis taking into consideration the tertiary form of the toxin, epitope analysis tools, and solubility inference. The results indicated that rHlyA has three antigenic domains localized in the aa555–565, aa600–610, and aa674–717 regions. Functional investigation of rHlyA demonstrated that it has hemolytic activity against sheep red cells, but no cytotoxic effect against epithelial bladder cells. In summary, the results obtained in this study indicate that rHlyA is a soluble recombinant protein that can be used as a tool in studies that aim to understand the mechanisms involved in the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of α-hemolysin produced by UPEC. In addition, rHlyA can be applied to generate monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies that can be utilized in the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 178
Magdalena Grochowska ◽  
Dominika Ambrożej ◽  
Aneta Wachnik ◽  
Urszula Demkow ◽  
Edyta Podsiadły ◽  

Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, many countries have introduced measures to limit the transmission. The data based on ICD-10 codes of lower respiratory tract infections and microbiological analysis of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections were collected. The retrospective five-year analysis of the medical records revealed a substantial decrease in respiratory tract infections during the pandemic year (from April 2020 to March 2021). We noted an 81% decline in the LRTI-associated hospital admissions based on the ICD-10 analysis (from a mean of 1170 admissions per year in the previous four years to 225 admissions between April 2020 through March 2021). According to microbiological analysis, there were 100%, 99%, 87%, and 47% drops in influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, and norovirus cases reported respectively during the pandemic season until April 2021 in comparison to pre-pandemic years. However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal bacterial infections was stable. Moreover, in August 2021, an unexpected rise in RSV-positive cases was observed. The measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic turned out to be effective but also had a substantial contribution to the so-far stable epidemiological situation of seasonal infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. e2137277
Jesús Sojo-Dorado ◽  
Inmaculada López-Hernández ◽  
Clara Rosso-Fernandez ◽  
Isabel M. Morales ◽  
Zaira R. Palacios-Baena ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262057
Claire A. Woodall ◽  
Luke J. McGeoch ◽  
Alastair D. Hay ◽  
Ashley Hammond

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are extremely common and can cause gastrointestinal tract symptoms and changes to the gut microbiota, yet these effects are poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the reported evidence of gut microbiome alterations in patients with a RTI compared to healthy controls (PROSPERO: CRD42019138853). We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and the Clinical Trial Database for studies published between January 2015 and June 2021. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were human cohorts describing the gut microbiome in patients with an RTI compared to healthy controls and the infection was caused by a viral or bacterial pathogen. Dual data screening and extraction with narrative synthesis was performed. We identified 1,593 articles and assessed 11 full texts for inclusion. Included studies (some nested) reported gut microbiome changes in the context of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (n = 5), influenza (H1N1 and H7N9) (n = 2), Tuberculosis (TB) (n = 4), Community-Acquired Pneumonia CAP (n = 2) and recurrent RTIs (rRTI) (n = 1) infections. We found studies of patients with an RTI compared to controls reported a decrease in gut microbiome diversity (Shannon) of 1.45 units (95% CI, 0.15–2.50 [p, <0.0001]) and a lower abundance of taxa (p, 0.0086). Meta-analysis of the Shannon value showed considerable heterogeneity between studies (I2, 94.42). Unbiased analysis displayed as a funnel plot revealed a depletion of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae and Ruminococcus and enrichment of Enterococcus. There was an important absence in the lack of cohort studies reporting gut microbiome changes and high heterogeneity between studies may be explained by variations in microbiome methods and confounder effects. Further human cohort studies are needed to understand RTI-induced gut microbiome changes to better understand interplay between microbes and respiratory health.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Jitka Krocová ◽  
Radka Prokešová

In the case of the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) related to healthcare provision, high-quality and comprehensively provided nursing care is essential. Implementation of preventive strategies is based on recommended procedures, and the introduction of whole sets of measures has been shown to be effective. The objective of this research is to find out whether the providers of acute bed care have implemented the steps of CAUTI prevention, and specifically which measures leading to improved quality of care in the area of urinary infections are already in place. To determine this, we carried out quantitative research. Data were collected using a questionnaire-based investigation; we used two non-standardised and one standardised questionnaire, and the respondents were general nurses in management positions (n = 186). The results revealed that result-related CAUTI indicators are monitored by only one-third of the respondents, and records of catheterisation indication are not kept by 17.3% of general nurses. The results of the research showed deficiencies in the monitoring of CAUTI outcome and process indicators, and a weakness of the implemented preventive measures is the maintenance of catheterisation documentation. Periodic CAUTI prevention training is not implemented as recommended. It is positive that there are well-working teams of HAI prevention experts in hospitals.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-216990
Virve I Enne ◽  
Alp Aydin ◽  
Rossella Baldan ◽  
Dewi R Owen ◽  
Hollian Richardson ◽  

BackgroundCulture-based microbiological investigation of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP or VAP) is insensitive, with aetiological agents often unidentified. This can lead to excess antimicrobial treatment of patients with susceptible pathogens, while those with resistant bacteria are treated inadequately for prolonged periods. Using PCR to seek pathogens and their resistance genes directly from clinical samples may improve therapy and stewardship.MethodsSurplus routine lower respiratory tract samples were collected from intensive care unit patients about to receive new or changed antibiotics for hospital-onset lower respiratory tract infections at 15 UK hospitals. Testing was performed using the BioFire FilmArray Pneumonia Panel (bioMérieux) and Unyvero Pneumonia Panel (Curetis). Concordance analysis compared machine and routine microbiology results, while Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis estimated the sensitivity and specificity of each test, incorporating information from both PCR panels and routine microbiology.FindingsIn 652 eligible samples; PCR identified pathogens in considerably more samples compared with routine microbiology: 60.4% and 74.2% for Unyvero and FilmArray respectively vs 44.2% by routine microbiology. PCR tests also detected more pathogens per sample than routine microbiology. For common HAP/VAP pathogens, FilmArray had sensitivity of 91.7%–100.0% and specificity of 87.5%–99.5%; Unyvero had sensitivity of 50.0%–100.0%%, and specificity of 89.4%–99.0%. BLC analysis indicated that, compared with PCR, routine microbiology had low sensitivity, ranging from 27.0% to 69.4%.InterpretationConventional and BLC analysis demonstrated that both platforms performed similarly and were considerably more sensitive than routine microbiology, detecting potential pathogens in patient samples reported as culture negative. The increased sensitivity of detection realised by PCR offers potential for improved antimicrobial prescribing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Suishan Qiu ◽  
Minghao Chen ◽  
Jun Lyu ◽  
Guangchao Yu ◽  

Abstract Background Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has risen in patients with urinary tract infections. The objective of this study was to determine explore the risk factors of ESBL-E infection in hospitalized patients and establish a predictive model. Methods This retrospective study included all patients with an Enterobacteriaceae-positive urine sample at the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from January 2018 to December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL-E were analyzed, and multivariate analysis of related factors was performed. From these, a nomogram was established to predict the possibility of ESBL-E infection. Simultaneously, susceptibility testing of a broad array of carbapenem antibiotics was performed on ESBL-E cultures to explore possible alternative treatment options. Results Of the total 874 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), 272 (31.1%) were ESBL-E positive. In the predictive analysis, five variables were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E infection: male gender (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.066–2.416), older age (OR = 4.100, 95% CI 1.678–12.343), a hospital stay in preceding 3 months (OR = 1.872, 95% CI 1.141–3.067), invasive urological procedure (OR = 1.810, 95% CI 1.197–2.729), and antibiotic use within the previous 3 months (OR = 1.833, 95% CI 1.055–3.188). In multivariate analysis, the data set was divided into a training set of 611 patients and a validation set of 263 patients The model developed to predict ESBL-E infection was effective, with the AuROC of 0.650 (95% CI 0.577–0.725). Among the antibiotics tested, several showed very high effectiveness against ESBL-E: amikacin (85.7%), carbapenems (83.8%), tigecycline (97.1%) and polymyxin (98.2%). Conclusions The nomogram is useful for estimating a UTI patient’s likelihood of infection with ESBL-E. It could improve clinical decision making and enable more efficient empirical treatment. Empirical treatment may be informed by the results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing.

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