scholarly journals Rhapsody in emerald: phylogenetic framework for Lestidae with reference to the systematic position of Chalcolestes Kennedy

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 ◽  
pp. 16-21
Thomas J. Simonsen ◽  
Marcus Glahder ◽  
Thomas Pape ◽  
Kent Olsen ◽  
Marie Djernæs

We reconstruct a phylogenetic framework for the zygopteran family Lestidae based on a molecular dataset comprised of sequence data from the genes COI, 16S, 18S, 28S, and ITS1+2 from 41 ingroup taxa and 8 outgroup taxa with emphasis on the systematic position of the genus Chalcolestes Kennedy. We recover Lestidae as monophyletic with good statistical support. The family falls into two subequal clades. One, comprising the genus Sympecma Burmeister and Lestes Leach sensu lato (including the genus Archi­lestes Selys) is poorly to moderately supported. While the other, comprising the genera Austrolestes Tillyard, Indolestes Fraser, Orolestes McLachlan, and Chalcolestes is strongly supported. Chalcolestes is recovered as sister to the Oriental genus Orolestes with strong support. Our results thus support that Chalcolestes is a valid genus not closely related to Lestes. Monophyly of Lestes requires inclusion of the New World genus Archilestes, and our results support the need for a thorough revision of Lestes.

The Auk ◽  
2007 ◽  
Vol 124 (1) ◽  
pp. 71-84 ◽  
W. Andrew Cox ◽  
Rebecca T. Kimball ◽  
Edward L. Braun

Abstract The evolutionary relationship between the New World quail (Odontophoridae) and other groups of Galliformes has been an area of debate. In particular, the relationship between the New World quail and guineafowl (Numidinae) has been difficult to resolve. We analyzed >8 kb of DNA sequence data from 16 taxa that represent all major lineages of Galliformes to resolve the phylogenetic position of New World quail. A combined data set of eight nuclear loci and three mitochondrial regions analyzed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods provide congruent and strong support for New World quail being basal members of a phasianid clade that excludes guineafowl. By contrast, the three mitochondrial regions exhibit modest incongruence with each other. This is reflected in the combined mitochondrial analyses that weakly support the Sibley-Ahlquist topology that placed the New World quail basal in relation to guineafowl and led to the placement of New World quail in its own family, sister to the Phasianidae. However, simulation-based topology tests using the mitochondrial data were unable to reject the topology suggested by our combined (mitochondrial and nuclear) data set. By contrast, similar tests using our most likely topology and our combined nuclear and mitochondrial data allow us to strongly reject the Sibley-Ahlquist topology and a topology based on morphological data that unites Old and New World quail. Posición Filogenética de las Codornices del Nuevo Mundo (Odontophoridae): Ocho Loci Nucleares y Tres Regiones Mitocondriales Contradicen la Morfología y la Filogenia de Sibley y Ahlquist

2020 ◽  
Vol 103 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-46
Yuan-Bing Wang ◽  
Yao Wang ◽  
Qi Fan ◽  
Dong-E Duan ◽  
Guo-Dong Zhang ◽  

Abstract The phylogeny and systematics of cordycipitoid fungi have been extensively studied in the last two decades. However, systematic positions of some taxa in the family Cordycipitaceae have not yet been thoroughly resolved. In this study, a new phylogenetic framework of Cordycipitaceae is reconstructed using multigene (nrSSU, nrLSU, tef-1α, rpb1 and rpb2) sequence data with large-scale taxon sampling. In addition, ITS sequence data of species belonging to the Lecanicillium lineage in the family Cordycipitaceae are used to further determine their phylogenetic placements. Based on molecular phylogenetic data together with morphological evidence, two new genera (Flavocillium and Liangia), 16 new species and four new combinations are introduced. In the new genus Flavocillium, one new species F. bifurcatum and three new combinations previously described as Lecanicillium, namely F. acerosium, F. primulinium and F. subprimulinium, are proposed. The genus Liangia is built by the new species Lia. sinensis with Lecanicillium-like asexual morph, isolated from an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria yunnanensis. Due to the absence of Paecilomyces hepiali, an economically and medically significant fungus, in the earlier phylogenetic analyses, its systematic position has been puzzling in both business and academic communities for a long time. Here, P. hepiali is recharacterized using the holotype material along with seven additional samples. It is assigned to the genus Samsoniella (Cordycipitaceae, Hypocreales) possessing Cordyceps-like sexual morph and Isaria-like asexual morph, and thus a new combination, namely S. hepiali is proposed. An additional nine new species in Samsoniella are described: S. alpina, S. antleroides, S. cardinalis, S. cristata, S. lanmaoa, S. kunmingensis, S. ramosa, S. tortricidae and S. yunnanensis. Four new species in Cordyceps are described: C. chaetoclavata, C. cocoonihabita, C. shuifuensis and C. subtenuipes. Simplicillium yunnanense, isolated from synnemata of Akanthomyces waltergamsii, is described as a new species.

2010 ◽  
Vol 23 (4) ◽  
pp. 229 ◽  
Xiaolan He ◽  
David Glenny

The monotypic genus Perssoniella with P. vitreocincta Herzog, endemic to New Caledonia, possesses a series of unique morphological characters and it has been assumed that the genus, assigned to the family Perssoniellaceae and suborder Perssoniellineae, is very isolated but sister to the family Schistochilaceae. The systematic identity of Perssoniella vitreocincta was studied using DNA sequence data for the chloroplast rbcL, rps4 and trnL-F regions. Our analyses placed Perssoniella vitreocincta within the family Schistochilaceae, and within Schistochila itself, with strong support. It suggests that retaining Perssoniella as an independent genus is untenable and we transfer it to the genus Schistochila. Our results indicate that Perssoniella vitreocincta is not an archaic species, as presupposed earlier. The differentiating characters in Perssoniella are mostly probably later derived, rather than ancestral. Our analyses also placed Pachyschistochila and Paraschistochila within Schistochila, again with strong support. We also transfer these two genera to Schistochila.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
pp. 11 ◽  

Deniquelata barringtoniae gen. et sp. nov. (Montagnulaceae) forms numerous ascomata on distinct zonate leaf spots of Barringtonia asiatica (Lecythidaceae). We isolated this taxon and sequenced the 18S and 28S nrDNA. The result of phylogenetic analysis based on 18S and 28S nrDNA sequence data indicate that the genus belongs in the family Montagnulaceae, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota. The ascomata are immersed, dark brown to black, with bitunicate asci and brown, muriform ascospores. Deniquelata is distinguished from the other genera in Montagnulaceae based on its short, broad, furcate and pedicellate asci, verruculose ascospores with short narrow pseudoparaphyses with parasitic naturee and this is also supported by molecular data. A new genus and species is therefore introduced to accommodate this taxon. We used isolates of this species to show via pathogenicity testing that the taxon is able to cause leaf spots when leaves are pin pricked.

2009 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-67 ◽  
Ivonne Sánchez del-Pino ◽  
Thomas Borsch ◽  
Timothy J. Motley

The Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae alliance has been the focus of several phylogenetic studies, but major questions concerning the internal relationships of Amaranthaceae still remain unanswered. This study aims to test the monophyly of the subfamily Gomphrenoideae and to examine the generic relationships within this group. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of trnL-F and rpl16 show that the subfamily Gomphrenoideae is monophyletic. The clade of Gomphrenoideae represents a large and diverse radiation of the Amaranthaceae in the New World. Unilocular anthers are a morphological synapomorphy for Gomphrenoideae that was derived from bilocular anthers. Three major clades are resolved: the Gomphrenoids, the Alternantheroids, and the Iresinoids, which are largely supported by pollen morphology. The Iresinoid clade is sister to Alternantheroids plus Gomphrenoids, rendering metareticulate pollen as the synapomorphy for the latter two clades. Tribes and subtribes delimited by androecium and inflorescence characters are poly- or paraphyletic. Several genera are monophyletic including the large genus Alternanthera, whereas Gomphrena is polyphyletic. Irenella and Woehleria are resolved within Iresine whereas Blutaparon and Lithophila fall within the polyphyletic Gomphrena. The trnL-F and rpl16 sequence data are the most variable chloroplast regions examined to date for the family and are highly effective in resolving relationships in Amaranthaceae.

2018 ◽  
Stephen Foley ◽  
Tim Lueddecke ◽  
Dong-Qiang Chen ◽  
Henrik Krehenwinkel ◽  
Sven Kuenzel ◽  

Mygalomorph spiders of the family Theraphosidae, known to the broader public as tarantulas, are among the most recognizable arachnids on earth due to their large size and widespread distribution. Their use of urticating setae is a notable adaptation that has evolved exclusively in certain New World theraphosids. Thus far, the evolutionary history of Theraphosidae remains poorly understood; theraphosid systematics still largely relies on morphological datasets, which suffer from high degrees of homoplasy, and traditional targeted sequencing of preselected genes failed to provide strong support for supra-generic clades (i.e. particularly those broader than subfamilies). In this study, we provide the first robust phylogenetic hypothesis of theraphosid evolution inferred from transcriptome data. A core ortholog approach was used to generate a phylogeny from 2460 orthologous genes across 25 theraphosid genera, representing all of the major theraphosid subfamilies, except Selenogyrinae. For the first time our phylogeny recovers a monophyletic group that comprises the vast majority of New World theraphosid subfamilies including Aviculariinae and Theraphosinae. Concurrently, we provide additional evidence for the integrity of questionable subfamilies, such as Poecilotheriinae and Psalmopoeinae, and support the non-monophyly of Ischnocolinae. The deeper relationships between almost all subfamilies are confidently inferred for the first time. We also used our phylogeny in tandem with published morphological data to perform ancestral state analyses on urticating setae. This revealed that the evolution of this important defensive trait might be explained by three equally parsimonious scenarios.

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (2) ◽  
pp. 389-402
Adam C. Schneider ◽  
Kate M. Sanders ◽  
Jacob H. Idec ◽  
Yun Jee Lee ◽  
Shawn C. Kenaley ◽  

Abstract— Dwarf mistletoes are a lineage of morphologically-reduced stem parasites inhabiting Pinaceae and Cupressaceae throughout the northern hemisphere and equatorial East Africa. Though diagnosable by a suite of morphological traits, phylogenetic knowledge of species relationships has been limited to studies employing either comprehensive taxonomic sampling of one or two genes, or more sequence data from a limited number of individuals. We used data from genome skimming to assemble 3kb of the nuclear ribosomal cistron and up to 45kb of the plastome to clarify the phylogenetic root of the genus, monophyly of species, and relationships among infraspecific taxa. Genomic differentiation among terminal taxa was variable; however, we found strong support for reciprocally monophyletic New World and Old World lineages, congruent nrDNA and plastome topologies at the species level and below, and monophyly of most taxonomic sections and species. Plastome gene content was stable across the genus with minimal pseudogenization or loss, as in other hemiparasites, with the notable exception of cemA. These findings form the basis of our re-evaluation of historical biogeographical hypotheses, species- and subspecies-level taxonomy, and plastome evolution in Arceuthobium. More broadly, this work provides a foundation for future clade-focused comparative and biosystematics studies of Arceuthobium.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 345 (1) ◽  
pp. 1 ◽  

Marinophialophora garethjonesii sp. nov., representing a novel genus Marinophialophora gen. nov., associated with the basidiomycete fungus, Halocyphina on mangrove wood from Phetchaburi, Thailand, is described and illustrated. Marinophialophora morphologically resembles Phialophora and Junctospora (Herpotrichiellaceae, Chaetothyriales) in having macronematous, unbranched or branched conidiophores, globose to subglobose, solitary, acrogenous, pale to subhyaline, aseptate, conidia in chains and phialidic conidiogenous cells. Marinophialophora mainly differs from other related genera due to its conidia borne in basipetally developing branched chains and septate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined ITS, LSU and SSU sequence data show that Marinophialophora garethjonesii constitutes an independent lineage with high statistical support basal to the genus Exophiala within the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Chaetothyriales). The new marine taxon is described herein with illustrations and relationships inferred from DNA sequence data.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 425 (5) ◽  
pp. 279-289

Based on a previous molecular phylogenetic analysis, Cryptantha, an herbaceous plant genus of the family Boraginaceae, subtribe Amsinckiinae, was split into five genera: Eremocarya, Greeneocharis, Johnstonella, Oreocarya, and a reduced Cryptantha, the last in two separate clades. As a result of this study, Johnstonella was expanded to 13 species and 15 minimum-rank taxa, these formerly classified in Cryptantha s.l. More recent analyses of this complex, with an increased sample size and high-throughput sequence data, indicate that four additional Cryptantha species not previously sampled—C. albida, C. mexicana, C. texana—plus what was originally identified as C. hispida nest within Johnstonella with strong support. However, the identity of C. hispida used in this analysis is now in doubt. The material used likely represents a new species, in the process of being investigated. Two additional species not sequenced to date—C. geohintonii and C. gypsites—are clearly close relatives of C. albida and C. mexicana, based on morphological similarity. In order to maintain monophyly of genera, we here make new combinations in transferring four of these species from Cryptantha to Johnstonella, with the new combinations Johnstonella albida, J. geohintonii, J. gypsites, and J. mexicana. We delay the transfer of Cryptantha texana to Johnstonella because of its morphological similarity to other species that clearly nest within Cryptantha s.s. These same molecular phylogenetic studies may also support the transfer of two previously recognized Johnstonella species—J. echinosepala and J. micromeres—to Cryptantha, one to each of two separate clades. Additional phylogenetic studies focusing on some of these taxa are needed to confirm the position of these latter three species and the possible recognition of a new genus in the complex.

2020 ◽  
Mark S. Harvey ◽  
Michael G. Rix ◽  
Mia J. Hillyer ◽  
Joel A. Huey

Compared with araneomorph spiders, relatively few mygalomorph spiders have evolved an obligate existence in subterranean habitats. The trapdoor spider genus Troglodiplura Main, 1969 and its sole named species T. lowryi Main, 1969 is endemic to caves on the Nullarbor Plain of southern Australia, and is one of the world’s most troglomorphic mygalomorph spiders. However, its systematic position has proved to be difficult to ascertain, largely due to a lack of preserved adults, with all museum specimens represented only by cuticular fragments, degraded specimens or preserved juveniles. The systematic placement of Troglodiplura has changed since it was first described as a member of the Dipluridae, with later attribution to Nemesiidae and then back to Dipluridae. The most recent hypothesis specifically allied Troglodiplura with the Neotropical subfamily Diplurinae, and therefore was assumed to have no close living relatives in Australia. We obtained mitochondrial sequence data from one specimen of Troglodiplura to test these two competing hypotheses, and found that Troglodiplura is a member of the family Anamidae (which was recently separated from the Nemesiidae). We also reassess the morphology of the cuticular fragments of specimens from several different caves, and hypothesise that along with T. lowryi there are four new troglobitic species, here named T. beirutpakbarai Harvey & Rix, T. challeni Harvey & Rix, T. harrisi Harvey & Rix, and T. samankunani Harvey & Rix, each of which is restricted to a single cave system and therefore severely threatened by changing environmental conditions within the caves. The first descriptions and illustrations of the female spermathecae of Troglodiplura are provided. The family Anamidae is further divided into two subfamilies, with the Anaminae Simon containing Aname L. Koch, 1873, Hesperonatalius Castalanelli, Huey, Hillyer & Harvey, 2017, Kwonkan Main, 1983, Swolnpes Main & Framenau, 2009 and Troglodiplura, and the Teylinae Main including Chenistonia Hogg, 1901, Namea Raven, 1984, Proshermacha Simon, 1909, Teyl Main, 1975 and Teyloides Main, 1985. ZooBank Registration:

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