neuroendocrine tumors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 486-494
Tingsong Yang ◽  
Zhi Ven Fong ◽  
Linda Pak ◽  
Shengnan J. Wang ◽  
Jia Wei ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 433
Ugo Marchese ◽  
Martin Gaillard ◽  
Anna Pellat ◽  
Stylianos Tzedakis ◽  
Einas Abou Ali ◽  

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) are rare tumors with a recent growing incidence. In the 2017 WHO classification, p-NETs are classified into well-differentiated (i.e., p-NETs grade 1 to 3) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (i.e., p-NECs). P-NETs G1 and G2 are often non-functioning tumors, of which the prognosis depends on the metastatic status. In the localized setting, p-NETs should be surgically managed, as no benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy has been demonstrated. Parenchymal sparing resection, including both duodenum and pancreas, are safe procedures in selected patients with reduced endocrine and exocrine long-term dysfunction. When the p-NET is benign or borderline malignant, this surgical option is associated with low rates of severe postoperative morbidity and in-hospital mortality. This narrative review offers comments, tips, and tricks from reviewing the available literature on these different options in order to clarify their indications. We also sum up the overall current data on p-NETs G1 and G2 management.

Pituitary ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ajay Madan ◽  
Stacy Markison ◽  
Stephen F. Betz ◽  
Alan Krasner ◽  
Rosa Luo ◽  

Abstract Purpose Evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of paltusotine, an orally bioavailable, nonpeptide, somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SST2) agonist being developed for the treatment of acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single center, single and multiple ascending dose phase 1 study was conducted in healthy male volunteers who received (i) single-dose of oral paltusotine 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg (solution); and 40 and 60 mg (capsules) or (ii) multiple-dose oral paltusotine capsules once daily 5 mg (× 7 days), 10, 20, and 30 mg (× 10 days). Main outcome measures were pharmacodynamics (changes in growth hormone-releasing hormone [GHRH] stimulated growth hormone [GH] and insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]), pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability. Results Single-dose cohorts: n = 41 active, n = 14 placebo. Multiple-dose cohorts: n = 24 active, n = 12 placebo. Paltusotine was well tolerated, orally bioavailable, associated with increased plasma concentrations to doses up to 40 mg, and was eliminated with a half-life of approximately 30 h. Single-dose paltusotine 1.25 to 20 mg suppressed GHRH-stimulated GH secretion by 44% to 93% compared to 15% with placebo. Multiple-dose paltusotine 5 to 30 mg administered once daily for 10 days suppressed IGF-1 by 19% to 37% compared to an increase of 2.4% with placebo. Conclusions Paltusotine suppresses GH and IGF-1 in a dose-dependent fashion, with a safety profile similar to currently approved SST2 receptor ligands. Paltusotine is a promising once-daily oral nonpeptide SST2 agonist candidate for managing acromegaly and neuroendocrine tumors. Trial registration NCT03276858, registered September 8, 2017, retrospectively registered.

M. J. C. van Treijen ◽  
J. M. H. Schoevers ◽  
B. C. Heeres ◽  
D. van der Zee ◽  
M. Maas ◽  

Anela Blažević ◽  
Anand M Iyer ◽  
Marie-Louise F van Velthuysen ◽  
Johannes Hofland ◽  
Lindsey Oudijk ◽  

Abstract Context Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) have a modest but significantly higher prevalence and worse prognosis in male patients. Objective This work aims to increase understanding of this sexual dimorphism in SI-NETs. Patients and Methods Retrospectively, SI-NET patients treated in a single tertiary center were included and analyzed for disease characteristics. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), progesterone receptor (PGR) and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was assessed in primary tumors and healthy intestine. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and AR protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in primary tumors and mesenteric metastases. Results Of the 559 patients, 47% were female. Mesenteric metastasis/fibrosis was more prevalent in men (71/46%) than women (58/37%, P=0.001 and P = 0.027). In women, prevalence of mesenteric metastases increased gradually with age from 41.1% in women <50 years to 71.7% in women >70 years. Increased expression of ESR1 and AR mRNA was observed in primary tumors compared to healthy intestine (both P < 0.001). ERα staining was observed in tumor cells and stroma with a strong correlation between tumor cells of primary tumors and mesenteric metastases (rho=0.831, P=0.02), but not in stroma (rho=-0.037, P=0.91). AR expression was only found in stroma. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in SI-NETs was most pronounced in mesenteric disease and the risk of mesenteric metastasis in women increased around menopause. The combination of increased ERα and AR expression in the SI-NET microenvironment suggests a modulating role of sex steroids in the development of the characteristic SI-NET mesenteric metastasis and associated fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
pp. jnumed.121.263230
Ebrahim S Delpassand ◽  
Izabela Tworowska ◽  
Rouzbeh Esfandiari ◽  
Julien Torgue ◽  
Jason Hurt ◽  

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