estrogen receptor
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 916
Paulina Escandon ◽  
Sarah E. Nicholas ◽  
Rebecca L. Cunningham ◽  
David A. Murphy ◽  
Kamran M. Riaz ◽  

Keratoconus (KC) is a progressive corneal thinning disease that manifests in puberty and worsens during pregnancy. KC onset and progression are attributed to diverse factors that include: environmental, genetics, and hormonal imbalances; however, the pathobiology remains elusive. This study aims to determine the role of corneal stroma sex hormone receptors in KC and their interplay with estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) using our established 3D in vitro model. Healthy cornea stromal cells (HCFs) and KC cornea stromal cells (HKCs), both male and female, were stimulated with various concentrations of E1 and E3. Significant changes were observed between cell types, as well as between males and females in the sex hormone receptors tested; androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) using Western blot analysis. E1 and E3 stimulations in HCF females showed AR, PR, and ERβ were significantly upregulated compared to HCF males. In contrast, ERα and ERβ had significantly higher expression in HKC’s females than HKC’s males. Our data suggest that the human cornea is a sex-dependent, hormone-responsive tissue that is significantly influenced by E1 and E3. Therefore, it is plausible that E1, E3, and sex hormone receptors are involved in the KC pathobiology, warranting further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-05
Armine V. Grigoryan ◽  
Alexander B. Blazhev ◽  
Tatyana M. Betova ◽  
Aneliya A. Dimitrova

Estradiol is an estrogen steroid hormone and is produced basically within the follicles of the ovaries. The decrease in serum estrogens concentration at menopause disrupts the metabolic balance, changes the lipid profile leading to visceral obesity, which caused an increase in serum estradiol levels, through aromatase activity. Estrogen deficiency also is a reason for the development of osteoporosis.We investigated the serum estradiol levels and changes in bone alpha estrogen receptor expression in ovariectomized rats. For this purpose, we used 20 female Wistar rats at reproductive age - 2 months divided into 2 groups: group 1 (G1)-10 animals were ovariectomized and group 2 (G2)-10 of which were sham-operated. All animals of G1 showed weight gain compared to group G2. The results showed that the values of serum 17β-estradiol in rats of G1 statistically increased compared to G2 (p <0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed no difference in estrogen receptor expression between the both groups. Histomorphological analysis of femur from G1 showed the presence of pronounced osteoporosis. Ovariectomy led to the development of obesity, which caused an increase in serum estradiol levels, through aromatase activity, but this process did not prevent bone tissue from developing osteoporosis.

Guitti Pourdowlat ◽  
Maryam Parvizi ◽  
Shogher Boyadjian ◽  
Masoud Shamaei ◽  
Mihan Pourabdollah

Background: Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is a potential target for cancer therapy as a tumor suppressor. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but fatal cancer. This study tries to estimate the incidence of ERβ expression in the various subtypes of MPM tumors. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective study performed at a pulmonary tertiary referral hospital, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissues of 46 definitive MPM were evaluated for expression of ERβ by immunohistochemistry. Results: ERβ was detected in 14 cases (30.4%) out of the total 46 patients with a mean age of 58.08±11.59 SD, including 33 (71.7%) males. There was no statistically significant difference in patients with positive ERβ staining versus negative cases in age and sex (P >0.05). MPM subtypes included 36 (78.2%) cases of epithelioid mesothelioma, 3 (6.5%) cases of sarcomatoid, 5 (10.8%) cases of biphasic, and 2 (4.3%) cases of desmoplastic subtype. ERβ expression was observed only in epithelioid (11 of total 36 cases) and biphasic (3 of total 5 cases) tumors. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ERβ expression in different subtypes of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference in the expression of ERβ in the epithelioid subtype (with a more favorable prognosis) versus non-epithelioid subtypes (with poor prognosis, including sarcomatoid, desmoplastic, and biphasic) (P = 0.024). Discussion and Conclusion: Considering the higher proportion of the epithelioid type of MPM with ERβ expression, this highlights the role of ERβ in target therapy of MPM tumor, especially in the epithelioid subtype with a more favorable prognosis. A better understanding of the pathology of mesothelioma will eventually contribute to the development of therapies beyond the existing therapeutic platform.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262485
Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki ◽  
Noriko Yamada ◽  
Yuria Hattori ◽  
Yui Hosokawa ◽  
Junko Tachi ◽  

Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) interacts with estrogen receptors and acts as both an agonist or an antagonist, depending on the target tissue. SERM is widely used as a safer hormone replacement therapeutic medicine for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Regarding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accumulating evidence indicates gender differences in the development, and that men are at higher morbidity risk than premenopausal women, suggesting that estrogen protects against HCC. However, it remains unclear whether SERM affects the HCC progression. Previously, we have shown that transforming growth factor (TGF)-α promotes the migration of HCC cells via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase and AKT. In the present study, we investigated whether SERM such as tamoxifen, raloxifene and bazedoxifene, affects the HCC cell migration using human HCC-derived HuH7 cells. Raloxifene and bazedoxifene but not tamoxifen, significantly suppressed the TGF-α-induced HuH7 cell migration. ERB041 and DPN, estrogen receptor (ER) β agonists, inhibited the TGF-α-induced cell migration whereas PPT, an ERα agonist, did not show the suppressive effect on the cell migration. ERB041 attenuated the TGF-α-induced phosphorylation of AKT without affecting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Raloxifene and bazedoxifene also inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT by TGF-α. Furthermore, PHTPP, an ERβ antagonist, significantly reversed the suppression by both raloxifene and bazedoxifene of the TGF-α-induced cell migration. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that raloxifene and bazedoxifene, SERMs, suppress the TGF-α-induced migration of HCC cells through ERβ-mediated inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 279
Anna Kawiak ◽  
Anna Kostecka

Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer accounts for around two-thirds of breast cancer occurrences, with endocrine therapy serving as first-line therapy in most cases. Targeting estrogen signaling pathways, which play a central role in regulating ER+ breast cell proliferation and survival, has proven to improve patient outcomes. However, despite the undeniable advantages of endocrine therapy, a subset of breast cancer patients develop acquired or intrinsic resistance to ER-targeting agents, limiting their efficacy. The activation of downstream ER signaling pathways upregulates pro-survival mechanisms that have been shown to influence the response of cells to endocrine therapy. The Bcl-2 family proteins play a central role in cell death regulation and have been shown to contribute to endocrine therapy resistance, supporting the survival of breast cancer cells and enhancing cell death evasion. Due to the overexpression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in ER-positive breast cancer, the role of these proteins as potential targets in hormone-responsive breast cancer is growing in interest. In particular, recent advances in the development of BH3 mimetics have enabled their evaluation in preclinical studies with ER+ breast cancer models, and BH3 mimetics have entered early ER+ breast cancer clinical trials. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in ER+ breast cancer. Furthermore, an overview of recent advances in research regarding the efficacy of BH3 mimetics in ER+ breast cancer has been provided.

Bone Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Zhenqing Liu ◽  
Hye-Lim Lee ◽  
Jin Sook Suh ◽  
Peng Deng ◽  
Chang-Ryul Lee ◽  

AbstractOsteoporosis is a highly prevalent public health burden associated with an increased risk of bone fracture, particularly in aging women. Estrogen, an important medicinal component for the preventative and therapeutic treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, induces osteogenesis by activating the estrogen receptor signaling pathway and upregulating the expression of osteogenic genes, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The epigenetic regulation of estrogen-mediated osteogenesis, however, is still unclear. In this report, we found that estrogen significantly induced the expression of lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) and that KDM6B depletion by shRNAs led to a significant reduction in the osteogenic potential of DMSCs. Mechanistically, upon estrogen stimulation, estrogen receptor-α (ERα) was recruited to the KDM6B promoter, directly enhancing KDM6B expression. Subsequently, KDM6B was recruited to the BMP2 and HOXC6 promoters, resulting in the removal of H3K27me3 marks and activating the transcription of BMP2 and HOXC6, the master genes of osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we found that estrogen enhanced DMSC osteogenesis during calvarial bone regeneration and that estrogen’s pro-osteogenic effect was dependent on KDM6B in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate the vital role of the ERα/KDM6B regulatory axis in the epigenetic regulation of the estrogen-dependent osteogenic response.

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