premenopausal women
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Juliawati Muhammad ◽  
Yusnita Yusof ◽  
Imran Ahmad ◽  
Mohd Noor Norhayati

Abstract Background Elagolix is effective and safe for treating menorrhagia in women with uterine fibroid. However, it is reported to be associated with hypoestrogenism that can be alleviated by adding estradiol/norethindrone acetate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid by comparing: elagolix versus placebo and elagolix versus estradiol/norethindrone acetate. Methodology The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2021, Issue 3 of 12), MEDLINE databases (1980 to December week 1, 2020), and trial registries for relevant randomized clinical trials were used. All randomized clinical trials were reviewed and evaluated. Random effects models were used to estimate the dichotomous outcomes and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Data for risk of bias, heterogeneity, sensitivity, reporting bias and quality of evidence were assessed. Results Four randomized controlled trials with 1949 premenopausal women from 323 locations were included. Elagolix improved menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 4.81, 95% CI 2.45 to 9.45; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline (RR 4.87, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.31; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) compared to placebo. There was no difference in menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16; five trials, 1365 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline between the elagolix (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15; five trials, 1365 participants; high quality evidence) and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. In both comparisons, elagolix has reduced the mean percentage change in uterine and fibroid volume, improved symptoms, and health-related quality of life. More patients had hot flush, and bone mineral density loss in the elagolix treatment compared to both placebo and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. Conclusions Elagolix appeared to be effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding caused by uterine fibroid and combination with estradiol/norethindrone acetate was able to alleviate the hypoestrogenism side effects in premenopausal women. Review registration PROSPERO CDR 42021233898.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262095
Lena M. Biehl ◽  
Fedja Farowski ◽  
Catharina Hilpert ◽  
Angela Nowag ◽  
Anne Kretzschmar ◽  

Background The understanding of longitudinal changes in the urinary microbiota of healthy women and its relation to intestinal microbiota is limited. Methods From a cohort of 15 premenopausal women without known urogenital disease or current symptoms, we collected catheter urine (CU), vaginal and periurethral swabs, and fecal samples on four visits over six months. Additionally, ten participants provided CU and midstream urine (MU) to assess comparability. Urine was subjected to expanded culture. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on all urine, fecal, and selected vaginal and periurethral samples. Sequence reads were processed (DADA2 pipeline) and analyzed using QIIME 2 and R. Results Relative abundances of urinary microbiota were variable over 6–18 months. The degree of intraindividual variability of urinary microbiota was higher than that found in fecal samples. Still, nearly half of the observed beta diversity of all urine samples could be attributed to differences between volunteers (R2 = 0.48, p = 0.001). After stratification by volunteer, time since last sexual intercourse was shown to be a factor significantly contributing to beta diversity (R2 = 0.14, p = 0.001). We observed a close relatedness of urogenital microbial habitats and a clear distinction from intestinal microbiota in the overall betadiversity analysis. Microbiota compositions derived from MU differed only slightly from CU compositions. Within this analysis of low-biomass samples, we identified contaminating sequences potentially stemming from sequencing reagents. Conclusions Results from our longitudinal cohort study confirmed the presence of a rather variable individual urinary microbiota in premenopausal women. These findings from catheter urine complement previous observations on temporal dynamics in voided urine. The higher intraindividual variability of urinary microbiota as compared to fecal microbiota will be a challenge for future studies investigating associations with urogenital diseases and aiming at identifying pathogenic microbiota signatures.

Marie Nakamura ◽  
Yasushi Yamamoto ◽  
Wataru Imaoka ◽  
Toshio Kuroshima ◽  
Ryoko Toragai ◽  

Background: Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL), a smaller and denser subfraction among whole LDL particles, is known to be highly atherogenic. The reference interval (RI) is not strictly defined for serum concentration of sdLDL-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) in Japan. The purpose of this study is to set the RI for sdLDL-C in healthy subjects. Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study were consisted of 40,862 individuals who had annual health checkups, and healthy subjects were extracted based on exclusion criteria such as medical history, social history, and blood sampling test results. Their serum sdLDL-C values were statistically analyzed and the RIs were set in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women separately. Results: The mean values of serum sdLDL-C in healthy subjects were 23.9 mg/dL in men, 20.0 mg/dL in premenopausal women and 23.7 mg/dL in postmenopausal women, and the RIs were 12.6-45.3 mg/dL in men, 11.4-35.1 mg/dL in premenopausal women and 14.6-38.6 mg/dL in postmenopausal women. Serum sdLDL-C values were significantly higher in men than in women. Besides, sdLDL-C values were significantly higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. In both genders, sdLDL-C values tended to increase with age. Conclusion: These results suggest that the RIs for sdLDL-C are recommended as follows: 13-45 mg/dL in men, 11-35 mg/dL in premenopausal women, and 15-39 mg/dL in postmenopausal women, respectively. Aside from these RIs, it is also necessary to define clinical cutoff values graded according to individual risk levels for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Krishna Parekh ◽  
Hannah Debra Kravets ◽  
Rebecca Spiegel

Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) fail to prevent seizure recurrence in more than 30% of patients with epilepsy. The treatment is more difficult in premenopausal women with epilepsy (WWE) because changes in plasma estrogen and progesterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle often affect seizure frequency and intensity. Interactions between enzyme-inducin ASMs and hormonal contraceptives can lead to both a loss of seizure control and failure of contraception. Significant changes in the function of the liver and kidneys during pregnancy can accelerate metabolism and elimination of ASMs, causing breakthrough seizures. In addition, the teratogenic, cognitive, and psychological effects of ASMs on potential offspring have to be considered when choosing the best ASM regimen. Therefore, aspecialized approach is necessary for the treatment of premenopausal WWE.

Richard A. Anderson ◽  
Tom W. Kelsey ◽  
Anne Perdrix ◽  
Nathalie Olympios ◽  
Orianne Duhamel ◽  

Abstract Purpose Accurate diagnosis and prediction of loss of ovarian function after chemotherapy for premenopausal women with early breast cancer (eBC) is important for future fertility and clinical decisions regarding the need for subsequent adjuvant ovarian suppression. We have investigated the value of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) as serum biomarker for this. Methods AMH was measured in serial blood samples from 206 premenopausal women aged 40–45 years with eBC, before and at intervals after chemotherapy. The diagnostic accuracy of AMH for loss of ovarian function at 30 months after chemotherapy and the predictive value for that of AMH measurement at 6 months were analysed. Results Undetectable AMH showed a high diagnostic accuracy for absent ovarian function at 30 months with AUROC 0.89 (96% CI 0.84–0.94, P < 0.0001). PPV of undetectable AMH at 6 months for a menopausal estradiol level at 30 months was 0.77. In multivariate analysis age, pre-treatment AMH and FSH, and taxane treatment were significant predictors, and combined with AMH at 6 months, gave AUROC of 0.90 (95% CI 0.86–0.94), with PPV 0.79 for loss of ovarian function at 30 months. Validation by random forest models with 30% data retained gave similar results. Conclusions AMH is a reliable diagnostic test for lack of ovarian function after chemotherapy in women aged 40–45 with eBC. Early analysis of AMH after chemotherapy allows identification of women who will not recover ovarian function with good accuracy. These analyses will help inform treatment decisions regarding adjuvant endocrine therapy in women who were premenopausal before starting chemotherapy.

Anela Blažević ◽  
Anand M Iyer ◽  
Marie-Louise F van Velthuysen ◽  
Johannes Hofland ◽  
Lindsey Oudijk ◽  

Abstract Context Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) have a modest but significantly higher prevalence and worse prognosis in male patients. Objective This work aims to increase understanding of this sexual dimorphism in SI-NETs. Patients and Methods Retrospectively, SI-NET patients treated in a single tertiary center were included and analyzed for disease characteristics. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and 2 (ESR2), progesterone receptor (PGR) and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was assessed in primary tumors and healthy intestine. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and AR protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in primary tumors and mesenteric metastases. Results Of the 559 patients, 47% were female. Mesenteric metastasis/fibrosis was more prevalent in men (71/46%) than women (58/37%, P=0.001 and P = 0.027). In women, prevalence of mesenteric metastases increased gradually with age from 41.1% in women &lt;50 years to 71.7% in women &gt;70 years. Increased expression of ESR1 and AR mRNA was observed in primary tumors compared to healthy intestine (both P &lt; 0.001). ERα staining was observed in tumor cells and stroma with a strong correlation between tumor cells of primary tumors and mesenteric metastases (rho=0.831, P=0.02), but not in stroma (rho=-0.037, P=0.91). AR expression was only found in stroma. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in SI-NETs was most pronounced in mesenteric disease and the risk of mesenteric metastasis in women increased around menopause. The combination of increased ERα and AR expression in the SI-NET microenvironment suggests a modulating role of sex steroids in the development of the characteristic SI-NET mesenteric metastasis and associated fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 78-86
Njoku CM ◽  
Meludu SC ◽  
Dioka CE

There is a traditional believe that if premenopausal women engage in prolonged physical exercise, they are likely to have infertility. This study assessed the effect of prolonged moderate – vigorous exercise on ovarian reserve and ovulatory status in premenopausal students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus. The objectives were to determine the effect of moderate – vigorous intensity exercise on Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), day 3 Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), day 3 Estrogen, day 21 Estrogen, and day 21 Progesterone levels in premenopausal women. This was a prospective comparative study involving 80 participants aged between 19 and 25 years, randomly selected and assigned to exercise group and control group. The exercise group comprised 40 participants who engaged in moderate – vigorous intensity exercise using elliptical bike for 30 minutes, five days a week for 3 months; however, 30 individuals completed the exercise. The control group comprised of 40 individuals that did not do exercise but 30 individuals completed the study. Blood (8ml) was collected from each of the participants at baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. AMH, FSH, LH, Estrogen and Progesterone levels were analyzed using enzyme- linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results were regarded as significant at p˂ 0.05. In the exercise group, the serum level of day 3 FSH, LH, Estrogen were significantly lower from 7.27±0.77 mIU/ml, 7.00±0.77 mIU/ml, 36.33±5.13 pg/ml respectively at baseline to 5.62±0.48 mIU/ml, 5.36±0.80 mIU/ml, 21.36±4.34 pg/ml respectively after 3 months of exercise while there was significantly higher levels of AMH and day 21 progesterone after 3 months of exercise compared with the baseline and respective control (p<0.05). Prolonged Moderate-to-vigorous exercise may enhance fertility and well-being of premenopausal women. Key words: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), day 3 Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), day 3 Estrogen, day 21 Estrogen, day 21 Progesterone, moderate – vigorous exercise, ovarian reserve, ovulatory status, premenopausal women.

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