BackgroundBrain tumor patients present high rates of distress, anxiety, and depression, in particular perioperatively. For resection of eloquent located cerebral lesions, awake surgery is the gold standard surgical method for the preservation of speech and motor function, which might be accompanied by increased psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to analyze if patients who are undergoing awake craniotomy suffer from increased prevalence or higher scores in distress, anxiety, or depression.MethodsPatients, who were electively admitted for brain tumor surgery at our neurooncological department, were perioperatively screened regarding distress, anxiety, and quality of life using three established self-assessment instruments (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, distress thermometer, and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30-BN20). Screening results were correlated regarding operation technique (awake vs. general anesthesia). Retrospective statistical analyses for nominal variables were conducted using chi-square test. Metric variables were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, the Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent-samples t-tests.ResultsData from 54 patients (26 male and 28 female) aged 29 to 82 years were available for statistical analyses. A total of 37 patients received primary resection and 17 recurrent tumor resection. Awake surgery was performed in 35 patients. There was no significant difference in awake versus non-awake surgery patients regarding prevalence (of distress (p = 0.465), anxiety (p = 0.223), or depression (p = 0.882). Furthermore, awake surgery had no significant influence on distress thermometer score (p = 0.668), anxiety score (p = 0.682), or depression score (p = 0.630) as well as future uncertainty (p = 0.436) or global health status (p = 0.943). Additionally, analyses revealed that primary or recurrent surgery also did not have any significant influence on the prevalence or scoring of the evaluated items.ConclusionAnalyses of our cohort’s data suggest that planned awake surgery might not have a negative impact on patients concerning the prevalence and severity of manifestation of distress, anxiety, or depression in psychooncological screening. Patients undergoing recurrent surgery tend to demonstrate increased distress, although results were not significant.
Treatment of severe rigid 360° fused cervical kyphosis (CK) is challenging and often requires a combined approach for ankylosis release, establishment of sagittal balance, and fixation with fusion.
Four patients with iatrogenic 360° fused severe rigid CK (Cobb angle ≥40°) were enrolled for this retrospective analysis. All patients in the case series were female, with an average age of 27 years. All patients previously underwent posterior laminectomy/laminoplasty and cervical tumor resection when they were children (13–17 years). They underwent correction surgery with a 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach. Preoperative and final follow-up radiography and computed tomography (CT) were used to evaluate kyphosis correction, internal fixation implants, and bone fusion. The preoperative and final follow-up average C2–7 Cobb angles were −32.4° ± 12.0° and 5.3° ± 7.1°, respectively. Preoperative and final follow-up CK angles averaged −47.2° ± 7.4° and −0.9° ± 16.1°, respectively. The mean correction angle was 46.3° ± 9.6°. At final follow-up, CT showed stable fixation and solid bone fusion.
The rare iatrogenic severe kyphosis with 360° ankylosis requires a combined approach. The 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach can completely release the bony fusion, and the CK can be corrected using an anterior plate. This technique can achieve good results and is an effective strategy.
IntroductionThe endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary adenomas (PAs). Since extracapsular resection (ER) of PAs improves tumor resection and endocrine remission rates, the interface between the pseudocapsule and gland draws increasing attention. However, it is difficult to precisely dissect the tumor along the exact boundary, and complete removal of the tumor increases the risks of normal tissue damage and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. In this study, we investigated the extracapsular resection as well as the pseudocapsule histology to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pseudocapsule-related surgical interventions.MethodsFrom December 2017 to December 2019, 189 patients of PAs via EEA in our single center were analyzed retrospectively. The images, operative details, and clinical follow-up of patients were collected. Sixty-four patients underwent pseudocapsule-based ER, and 125 patients also underwent traditional intracapsular resection (IR) with or without intensive excision for FPAs. The clinical characteristics, tumor resection, endocrinological outcomes, and postoperative morbidities of the two groups were compared. Informed consent for publication of our article was obtained from each patient. Histological examination of pseudocapsule was performed using hematoxylin and eosin and reticulin staining.ResultsThe gross total recession was 62 (96.9%) in the ER group and 107 (85.6%) cases in the IR group, whereas the endocrine remission rate was 29/31 (93.5%) and 40/53 (75.5%) cases, respectively. Anterior pituitary functions were not aggravated postoperatively in any patient, but transient diabetes insipidus (DI) occurred more in the IR group (64.0%) than in ER (48.4%). Pseudocapsule specimens were obtained in 93 patients, and clusters of small cell aggregation were detected in 11 pseudocapsule specimens (11.8%) whereas other patients showed no remarkable developed pseudocapsule. Intraoperative CSF leak occurred more in the ER group (28.1%) than in the IR group (13.6%), but no difference was seen between two groups postoperatively. No case of intracranial hematoma or pituitary crisis occurred in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 22.8 months, tumor recurrence was observed in 4 (2.1%) cases.ConclusionPseudocapsule-based extracapsular resection of PAs via EEA is an effective and safe procedure to achieve complete resection with high and sustained endocrine remission and without deteriorating pituitary function.
Glial tumors are one of the most common lesions of the central nervous system. Despite the implementation of appropriate treatment, the prognosis is not successful. As shown in the literature, maximal tumor resection is a key element in improving therapeutic outcome. One of the methods to achieve it is the use of fluorescent intraoperative navigation with 5-aminolevulinic acid. Unfortunately, often the level of fluorescence emitted is not satisfactory, resulting in difficulties in the course of surgery. This article summarizes currently available knowledge regarding differences in the level of emitted fluorescence. It may depend on both the histological type and the genetic profile of the tumor, which is reflected in the activity and expression of enzymes involved in the intracellular metabolism of fluorescent dyes, such as PBGD, FECH, UROS, and ALAS. The transport of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its metabolites across the blood–brain barrier and cell membranes mediated by transporters, such as ABCB6 and ABCG2, is also important. Accompanying therapies, such as antiepileptic drugs or steroids, also have an impact on light emission by tumor cells. Accurate determination of the factors influencing the fluorescence of 5-aminolevulinic acid-treated cells may contribute to the improvement of fluorescence navigation in patients with highly malignant gliomas.
Nuclear and optical dual-modality probes can be of great assistance in prostate cancer localization, providing the means for both preoperative nuclear imaging and intraoperative surgical guidance. We developed a series of probes based on the backbone of the established GRPR-targeting radiotracer NeoB. The inverse electron demand of the Diels–Alder reaction was used to integrate the sulfo-cyanine 5 dye. Indium-111 radiolabeling, stability studies and a competition binding assay were carried out. Pilot biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice, using the best two dual-labeled probes. The dual-modality probes were radiolabeled with a high yield (> 92%), were proven to be hydrophilic and demonstrated high stability in mouse serum (> 94% intact labeled ligand at 4 h). The binding affinity for the GRPR was in the nanomolar range (21.9–118.7 nM). SPECT/CT images at 2 h p.i. clearly visualized the tumor xenograft and biodistribution studies, after scanning confirmed the high tumor uptake (8.47 ± 0.46%ID/g and 6.90 ± 0.81%ID/g for probe [111In]In-12 and [111In]In-15, respectively). Receptor specificity was illustrated with blocking studies, and co-localization of the radioactive and fluorescent signal was verified by ex vivo fluorescent imaging. Although optimal tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-kidney ratios might not yet have been reached due to the prolonged blood circulation, our probes are promising candidates for the preoperative and intraoperative visualization of GRPR-positive prostate cancer.
ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of mixed reality combined with surgical navigation in oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery.MethodsRetrospective analysis of data of seven patients with oral and maxillofacial tumors who underwent surgery between January 2019 and January 2021 using a combination of mixed reality and surgical navigation. Virtual surgical planning and navigation plan were based on preoperative CT datasets. Through IGT-Link port, mixed reality workstation was synchronized with surgical navigation, and surgical planning data were transferred to the mixed reality workstation. Osteotomy lines were marked with the aid of both surgical navigation and mixed reality images visualized through HoloLens. Frozen section examination was used to ensure negative surgical margins. Postoperative CT datasets were obtained 1 week after the surgery, and chromatographic analysis of virtual osteotomies and actual osteotomies was carried out. Patients received standard oncological postoperative follow-up.ResultsOf the seven patients, four had maxillary tumors and three had mandibular tumors. There were total of 13 osteotomy planes. Mean deviation between the planned osteotomy plane and the actual osteotomy plane was 1.68 ± 0.92 mm; the maximum deviation was 3.46 mm. Chromatographic analysis showed error of ≤3 mm for 80.16% of the points. Mean deviations of maxillary and mandibular osteotomy lines were approximate (1.60 ± 0.93 mm vs. 1.86 ± 0.93 mm). While five patients had benign tumors, two had malignant tumors. Mean deviations of osteotomy lines was comparable between patients with benign and malignant tumors (1.48 ± 0.74 mm vs. 2.18 ± 0.77 mm). Intraoperative frozen pathology confirmed negative resection margins in all cases. No tumor recurrence or complications occurred during mean follow-up of 15.7 months (range, 6-26 months).ConclusionThe combination of mixed reality technology and surgical navigation appears to be feasible, safe, and effective for tumor resection in the oral and maxillofacial region.
This study aimed to analyze the clinical and pathological features of extrauterine endometrial stromal sarcoma (EESS) and explore an effective therapeutic regimen to reduce the recurrence rate in low-grade EESS patients.
Ten LG-EESS patients who were treated at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Cancer Institute and Hospital from June 1999 to June 2019 were collected and analyzed.
(1) Patient demographics are summarized in manuscript. Preoperative CA125 examination showed that 8 patients had a median level of 49.5 U/L (15.4–168.0 U/L). (2) All ten patients underwent tumor cytoreductive surgery. Five patients underwent optimal tumor resection and achieved an R0 resection. After the initial surgery, 7 patients who had multiple metastasis were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, 2 patients with vaginal ESS were treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and 6 patients with ER/PR positive received hormone therapy with or without chemotherapy. (2) Most EESS patients had multiple tumors. The omentum was the most commonly affected site, followed by the ovaries. (3) The median follow-up was 94 (range: 27–228) months, and recurrence was observed in 3 patients (n = 10, 30%) who underwent non-optimal surgery and no hormone therapy. The 5-year and 10-year DFS rates were both 70%, as shown in Fig. 2. OS was both 100% at 5 and 10 years.
As a conclusion, EESS is a rare disease and LG-EESS has a good prognosis. Surgery remains the available treatment for patients. LG-EESS has a risk of late recurrence which requires a long-term follow-up. With a limited sample size, our study shows optimal tumor reductive surgery and adjuvant hormone therapy may significantly reduce the risk of recurrence.
Adjuvant treatment with Gliadel wafers may prolong overall survival (OS) for malignant glioma patients without increasing toxicity. In Japan, the long-term OS of these patients treated with Gliadel 7.7 mg implants has not been studied. We evaluated OS and prognostic factors that might affect OS in Japanese patients with malignant glioma who received the Gliadel 7.7 mg implant.
This observational, long-term, post-marketing surveillance was an extension of a previous surveillance. Data were collected through case report forms at 2 and 3 years after Gliadel implant. Up to 8 Gliadel wafers (61.6 mg of carmustine) were placed over the tumor resection site. Primary endpoints were OS and prognostic factors that may influence OS.
Among the 506 patients analyzed, 62.6% had newly diagnosed disease, and 37.4% had recurrent disease; 79.1% had glioblastoma histological type and 79.6% had World Health Organization Grade IV disease. Patients received a median of 8 wafers. The median OS was 18.0 months; OS rates were 39.8% and 31.5% at 2 and 3 years, respectively. Age ≥65 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.456; P = 0.002), lower resection rate (HR: 1.206; P < 0.001), recurrence (HR: 2.418; P < 0.001), and concomitant radiotherapy (HR: 0.588; P < 0.001) were identified as significant prognostic factors.
This study confirmed the 2- and 3-year OS of Japanese malignant glioma patients with varied backgrounds after Gliadel implant. With a careful interpretation of indirect comparisons with previously reported data, the results suggest that prognosis could be improved with Gliadel implants.
Pediatric brain tumors represent the most common types of childhood cancer and novel diagnostic and therapeutic solutions are urgently needed. The gold standard treatment option for brain cancers in children, as in adults, is tumor resection followed by radio- and chemotherapy, but with discouraging therapeutic results. In particular, the last two treatments are often associated to significant neurotoxicity in the developing brain of a child, with resulting disabilities such as cognitive problems, neuroendocrine, and neurosensory dysfunctions/deficits. Nanoparticles have been increasingly and thoroughly investigated as they show great promises as diagnostic tools and vectors for gene/drug therapy for pediatric brain cancer due to their ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. In this review we will discuss the developments of nanoparticle-based strategies as novel precision nanomedicine tools for diagnosis and therapy in pediatric brain cancers, with a particular focus on targeting strategies to overcome the main physiological obstacles that are represented by blood–brain barrier.