nuclear binding energy
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Seshavatharam UVS ◽  
Lakshminarayana S

Abstract By modifying Ghahramany’s integrated nuclear binding energy formula with strong and weak interactions, it is possible to approximate the nuclear binding energy of isotopes with one unique energy coefficient and four terms. Considering even-odd corrections, shell corrections and other microscopic corrections, it seems possible to improve the accuracy with a clear physical basis. Based on our recent work and the proposed formula, we are very confident to say that, electroweak interaction plays a vital role in fixing the nuclear binding energy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Koji Hashimoto ◽  
Yoshinori Matsuo

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Seshavatharam U V S ◽  
Lakshminarayana S

An attempt is made toa model the atomic nucleus as a combination of bound and free or unbound nucleons. Due to strong interaction, bound nucleons help in increasing nuclear binding energy and due to electroweak interaction, free or unbound nucleons help in decreasing nuclear binding energy. In this context, with reference to proposed 4G model of final unification and strong interaction, recently we have developed a unified nuclear binding energy scheme with four simple terms, one energy coefficient of 10.1 MeV and two small numbers 0.0016 and 0.0019. In this paper, by eliminating the number 0.0019, we try to fine tune the estimation procedure of number of free or unbound nucleons pertaining to the second term with an energy coefficient of 11.9 MeV. Interesting observation is that, Z can be considered as a characteristic representation of range of number of bound isotopes of  Z. 


Author(s):  
Alpi Mahisha Nugraha ◽  
Nurullaeli Nurullaeli

<p class="AbstrakIndonesia"><strong><em>Abstract:</em></strong><em> </em>Pairing is collective phenomenon caused by fermions as neutron and proton collected in nuclei, this phenomenon can be found in the formation of isotopes such as the Cr-isotopes. Pairing has an impact on the amount of nuclear binding energy. Like as social being uniquely, fermions will have a strong relationship when collected in nuclei isotopes. Their binding energy will increase when the nuclei have a paired of even-even number neutron or proton. One of the most powerful approaches in explaining the pairing effect is the Bardeen-Cooper-Srhrieffer approximation (BCS-Approximation), which is forms the basis of the theory superfluidity phenomenon in nucleiIn BCS-Approximation requires an interaction potential matrix that describes the neutron interactions between energy levels. We used uniform fixed potential energy 0.5 MeV, 0.1 MeV, and 0.01 MeV which is will be an option in this approach to calculate the total binding energy in Cr-isotopes.</p><p class="AbstrakIndonesia"><strong>Abstrak:</strong> Pairing merupakan fenomena keloktif dari beberapa fermion yang berkumpul, fenomena ini dapat ditemukan pada pembentukan isotop seperti isotop Cr. Pairing atau pasangan akan berdampak pada besar energi ikat inti atom, seperti halnya makhluk sosial yang akan meemliki hubungan yang kuat ketika berkumpul, isotop suatu nuklida juga akan mengalami peningkatan energi ikat ketika jumlah partikel semakin banyak dan berjumlah genap atau berpasangan. Salah satu pendekatan yang sangat powerfull dalam menjelaskan pairing effect tersebut adalah pedekatan Bardeen, Cooper, dan Schrieffer yang dikenal dengan BCS Approximation, yang menjadi dasar teori dari fenomena superfluidity. Penggunaan pendekatan ini memerlukan matriks potensial interaksi yang menggambarkan interaksi neutron antar level energi, penggunaan Uniform Fixed Potential Interaction yang bernilai 0.5 MeV, 0.1 MeV, dan 0.01 MeV menjadi salah satu pilihan dalam pendekatan ini untuk menghitung energi ikat total inti isotop Cr.</p>


Author(s):  
Satya Seshavatharam U.V ◽  
Lakshminarayana S.

With reference to proposed 4G model of final unification and strong interaction, recently we have developed a unified nuclear binding energy scheme with four simple terms, one energy coefficient of 10.1 MeV and two small numbers 0.0016 and 0.0019. In this paper, by eliminating the number 0.0019, we try to fine tune the estimation procedure of number of free or unbound nucleons pertaining to the second term with an energy coefficient of 11.9 MeV. It seems that, some kind of electroweak interaction is playing a strange role in maintaining free or unbound nucleons within the nucleus. It is possible to say that, strong interaction plays a vital role in increasing nuclear binding energy and electroweak interaction plays a vital role in reducing nuclear binding energy. Interesting observation is that, Z can be considered as a characteristic representation of range of number of bound isotopes of Z. For medium, heavy and super heavy atoms, beginning and ending mass numbers pertaining to bound states can be understood with 2Z+0.004Z^2 and 3Z+0.004Z^2 respectively. With further study, neutron drip lines can be understood. Based on this kind of data fitting procedure, existence of our 4G model of electroweak fermion of rest energy 584.725 GeV can be confirmed indirectly.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
YeQiu He ◽  
JiaKun Ge ◽  
GuanJian Fu ◽  
Hui (慧) Jiang (姜)

2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Seshavatharam UVS ◽  
Lakshminarayana S

Starting from Z=3 to 120, energy coefficient being 10.1 MeV - nuclear binding energy increases with increasing mass number, decreases with increasing number of free or unbound nucleons, decreases with increasing radius and decreases with increasing asymmetry about the mean stable mass number. Proceeding further, by considering the number of free or unbound nucleons, an attempt is made to understand the mass limits of nuclear stability zone. With further study, stable zones of relatively long living super heavy elements can be identified.


Author(s):  
UVS Seshavatharam ◽  
S Lakshminarayana

To understand the mystery of final unification, in our earlier publications, we proposed two bold concepts: 1) There exist three atomic gravitational constants associated with electroweak, strong and electromagnetic interactions. 2) There exists a strong elementary charge in such a way that its squared ratio with normal elementary charge is close to reciprocal of the strong coupling constant. In this paper we propose that, ℏc can be considered as a compound physical constant associated with proton mass, electron mass and the three atomic gravitational constants. With these ideas, an attempt is made to understand nuclear stability and binding energy. In this new approach, with reference to our earlier introduced coefficients k = 0.00642 and f = 0.00189, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with four simple terms having one unique energy coefficient. The two coefficients can be addressed with powers of the strong coupling constant. Classifying nucleons as ‘free nucleons’ and ‘active nucleons’, nuclear binding energy and stability can be understood. Starting from , number of isotopes seems to increase from 2 to 16 at and then decreases to 1 at For Z >= 84, lower stability seems to be, Alower=(2.5 to 2.531)Z.


Author(s):  
U.V.S Seshavatharam ◽  
S. Lakshminarayana

As there exist no repulsive forces in strong interaction, in a hypothetical approach, strong interaction can be assumed to be equivalent to a large gravitational coupling. Based on this concept, strong coupling constant can be defined as a ratio of the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force associated with proton, neutron, up quark and down quark. With respect to the product of strong coupling constant and fine structure ratio, we review our recently proposed two semi empirical relations and coefficients 0.00189 and 0.00642 connected with nuclear stability and binding energy. We wish to emphasize that- by classifying nucleons as &lsquo;free nucleons&rsquo; and &lsquo;active nucleons&rsquo;, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with a new class of &lsquo;three term&rsquo; formula having one unique energy coefficient. In table-3, we present the estimated nuclear binding energy data for Z=3 to 120 and compare it with the two standard semi empirical mass formulae as a supplementary file.


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